What is a cancer stage biology essay

Tests are performed to identify the cancer stages. The stage of any cancer will give information to the doctor about the extent of its spread in the body. Stage identification is important as appropriate treatment is vital depending on the stage of the cancer. There are many methods for the doctors to identify the stages of the cancer. These methods when used for identifying the various stages of cervical cancer are numbered from one to four.

In Situ carcinoma

Carcinoma In-situ indicates that a few of the cells in cervix will undergo some changes to become cancerous. These abnormally dividing cells will remain inside the surface layer of the cervix. The carcinoma In-situ is not considered as cancer, all the time. Some women develop these cells into cancers after some time. Hence, carcinoma In-situ has to be treated immediately to prevent the future problems. If the area affected is removed then there is no risk of cancer development. There are certain cervical screening tests that were done to identify carcinoma In-situ.

Stages of Cervical cancer

Stage 1

In this stage, the cancer is found to be present in the neck region of the womb. This stage 1 is divided again into stage 1A and stage 1B. These stages are again subdivided into stage 1A1, stage 1A2, stage 1B1 and stage 1B2. Stage 1A of cancer will show a small growth in the cells which can only be observed through a microscope. In stage1A1, the cancer is found to have grown into the cervical tissues at the size of less than 3mm. Stage 1A1 cancer size will be less than 7mm wide. The stage 1A2 cancer will grow to the size between 3mm and 5mm and into the cervical tissue. This stage cancer is also observed to have less than 7mm width. Stage 1B cancer will be larger and will remain within the cervical tissue without spreading. This stage of the cancer can be visualized without the help of a microscope, though not always. The size of the cancer in stage1B1 is not found to be larger than 4cm while the size greater than 4cm is seen in stage 1B2. The stage I cervical cancer is usually treated with the help of surgery or radiotherapy. The person will have to undergo radiotherapy as well as chemotherapy to treat the stage 1B2.

Stage 2

In stage 2 of the cervical cancer, the cancer will come out of the neck of the womb and starts spreading to the surrounding tissues. But, stage 2 cancer will not spread into the muscles and ligaments that are lining the pelvic region and to the bottom part of the vagina. Stage 2 is further divided into stage 2A and stage 2B. In stage 2A, it is found that the cancer has spread to the top part of the vagina. This stage is subdivided into stage 2A1 and stage 2A2. The cancer size is less than 4cm or is of 4cm size in the case of stage 2A1 while it is more than 4cm in the stage 2A2. In stage 2B, the cancer will spread into the surrounding tissues of cervix. Stage 2A can be treated surgically or a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The stage 2B cancer in cervix can be treated with chemo radiation.

Stage 3

In this stage of cervical cancer, the cancer will spread from the cervix into the surrounding tissues and structures present in the pelvic region. The cancer might also have spread to the bottom part of the vagina along with the ligaments and muscles that are lining the pelvic region. The cancer in this stage might grow to block the tubes which extend from kidneys. The stage 3 is subdivided into stage 3A and stage 3B. If the cancer has spread to the pelvic wall and has reached the lower part of the vagina then it is said to be in stage 3A. If the cancer has spread to the draining tubes from the kidneys and has grown to the extent that it reaches the pelvic wall then the stage is known as stage 3B. The stage 3B cancer is treated using chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Stage 4

This stage of cervical cancer is considered as advanced stage. The cancer would have spread to the other body parts outside the cervix and womb and this stage is classified as stage 4A and stage 4B. The stage 4A is characterized by the spread of cancer to the organs like rectum and bladder. If the cancer has spread to the organs that are far away from the site of its origin then the doctors might term the cancer condition as stage 4B. This cancer stage is usually treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy or surgery. A combination of these treatment strategies also can be applied. Tags: cervical cancer stages, stages of cancer in the cervix, stages of cervical cancer, cancer stages in cervical region, carcinoma In-situ.