Trafficking in south asia sociology essay

As first chapter is about the introduction of why a research was needed on this topic. What is the research question? What are the main objectives of this research? A list of books and journals will be reviewed as how they have contributed to this studyThe second chapter will be the introduction of human trafficking. This chapter will highlight some of the most important definitions of human trafficking by different organization. Chapter two will be discussing in this study about the purpose of human trafficking. What are the deep roots of cause of human trafficking? What are the types of human trafficking? Who are the victims? What is the difference between human smuggling and human trafficking is there a difference or none at all. Chapter three will be focusing in this study on human trafficking in person in South Asia. This chapter will specially focus on Bangladesh, Pakistan and India in detail. First of all Pakistan is discussed in detail with an introduction to human trafficking in the country along of the trafficking purposes in the country. Why human trafficking occurs in Pakistan. And what kind of restricted measures are taken on the victim to restrain in the societal structure of Pakistan. Similar to Pakistan detail Bangladesh has also been discussed in detail in chapter three. Statistics and volume of data has been collected to overview the situation of trafficking in Bangladesh. An overall introduction of India and the country role by which human trafficking is being played will be discussed in detail. Different dynamics of human trafficking in India is present in chapter three whereas the supply and demand ratio has also been discussed in this chapter. Chapter four will be the last chapter of this study. This chapter will be discussing about the anti-human trafficking laws that are working in South Asia. This chapter will discuss the role of national and international actors as well as reviewing about the consequences and effects on victims by human trafficking. A development approach will be analyzed on human trafficking as well as the domestic laws in South Asia will be discussed in detail. Chapter four will also be highlighting on the absence of human trafficking definition in South Asia. The main question which will be discussed in this study is that Is human trafficking in South Asia especially Pakistan, India and Bangladesh emerging as a crime and social issue? The study is important because human trafficking is emerging as a global social issue these days. This study will focus on South Asian countries. How Pakistan, Bangladesh and India as three main case studies are being the victim of this crime. This study will also give an overview of the remaining countries of who are being victimized in this process. This study will reveal that how trafficking has emerged over time with the rise of globalization, who is the victims. The causes and implementation of this whole trafficking business will be focused as to what are the goals and objectives of the traffickers in the following countries. This study will emphasize on how the trafficking is being stop and combatted by South Asian laws. A well put effort is made in this study to realize us how much of this as a social issue is emerging and how much is it being seen upon. Doing research on this study will help in identifying the factors of human trafficking in South Asia and also gives an understanding that how trafficking put impacts on the victims as well as on the family of the victim. Other objectives are to create public awareness of human trafficking on national and international level and to put Emphasizes on the need to stop sexual exploitation and child labor through trafficking. The study will also be helpful in giving full understanding of what the international organization; NGO’s and government efforts are doing to combat trafficking. In the present study qualitative as well as quantitative data is being used for sake of data collection. The book ” Human Trafficking- Human Misery the Global Trade in Human Beings” written by Alexis. A. Aronowitz. The book is published by Praeger Publisher, 2009. This book focuses on the seriousness of human trafficking. It tells us how many parts of the world are being affected by human trafficking. There can be 3 roles played by a country 1) source 2) transit 3) destination. The book tells how they are different patterns in trafficking that are based differently across the region and across state. Child victims have also been emphasized in this book. UN has categorized exploitation into 2 categories 1) sexual 2) labor. The authoress has made it clear in her book states have only been focusing on the exploitation of sex trade but there is a lot of exploitation going in other fields. Trafficking is described as an underworld where violence and force is used. This book has been written from a victim approach and analysis where it carefully examines and exploits the criminal trafficker and its network who exploits there victim and traffic them to another destination. She has placed the victims into different category and each category is examined and described closely. She has discussed and raised the forum which are least touched upon and discussed: 1) child soldier 2) mail order brides 3) use of internet 4) in organs. The book also revolves around the trafficking of human nature. The book also reveals the harms done by trafficking inflicted upon its victims and its families. The book ” Social Issues of India” written by Smarak Swain was published by New Vishal Publication, 2009. In the first part of this book is relating to my study. The first part is named as gender and child issues where this part has given the overview of how violence against women in India is being done. What are the key problems that working women are facing. How HIV/Aids are commonly being found in women in India. How trafficking is playing a role in India where sex trafficking is being emphasized. How education is being mattered in all of this. The socio-economic part of this book discusses on various issues like poverty, slums, deprivation, migration, environment etc. The next part of this book is socio-political issues where regionalism, political parties, corruption, integration etc. topics are discussed. The other two topics are marginalized groups and globalization and society. A book named as ” Trafficking in women & children in India” written by Orient Longman and published by Chaman Enterprises, 2005, New Delhi. The book starts off with the definition of trafficking with respect to organization. The book tells us the procedure of trafficking and the routes to which the traffickers use them to traffic people and victims. Impact of trafficking is also explained. Magnitude of trafficking is estimated in this book. A chapter focuses on the profile of India and the cities that are under survey were also in consideration in this book. A chapter is dedicated to survivor where they are discussed; there profile is explained as well as the traffickers profile is explained. Their martial profile is described. A serious thought is given to them that how and when these people are abducted for trafficking and what is their future when they get captured are they’re traffic or rehabilitated, and either contact is made with their family or not. Victims are also discussed separately in this book and on the same patters. The clients of such traffic people are discussed of how they first come and then how do them get frequent. What enforcement is being done against such clients? The book also touches upon a section where brothels are discussed where how raids on brothels are done, what are the income of brothels, what is the role of demand of traffic victims, the health issues that are being faced. Profile of children who are traffic is also discussed and who are the person behind them responsible and to which extent they are exploited by the employers. The book also leads you to the distinguishing of smuggling, trafficking and migration. How sex tourism is affecting India. A national data is given in this book with the present law enforcement and the role of NGO’s to combat this crime. The book ” Human Trafficking: Exploiting the International nature concerns and complexities” written by John Winterdyk, Philip L. Reichel and Benjamin Perrin. The human trafficking is considered to be an illegal act that violates international law and human rights and disturbs the global order. It links countries making them play the role of destination countries others as the source countries. This book is based upon 3 global experts who collectively combine their experiences and knowledge. They describe us the various techniques that is used to support victims of trafficking this book includes how data should be collected and examined in human trafficking. And when we discuss of combatting human trafficking, the book emphasize on the importance of how cooperation and info should be exchanged between the people who are playing an important role in combatting. This book also describes the scope of victimization. The book has focused on each chapter by leading the topics to a discussion question for the readers. It is emphasizing on the issues and complexities that said and described by the various researchers, scholars, policy makers etc. the book also explains and teaches the topic of victim identification. Another books named as ” The International Law of Human Trafficking” written By Anne T. Gallagher and published by Cambridge University Press, 2010. This book describes that how international law has been helping to combat trafficking. As we come to that human trafficking has prevailed throughout history. We now know that trafficking came as a high debate in the international community and there was a strong need that we combat human trafficking. The author herself has taken part in the United Nations to draft out international laws for human trafficking. The book tells us what the following obligations that prevent trafficking are. This book has been written by too much effort for it may be countered as a guide to the policy makers and advocate. An article ” Female & Child Trafficking from Bangladesh, A new form of slavery” written by N. M. Sajjadul Haque is related to the study. This article got published by Canadian Social Science Vol . 8 No. 1 2010. This article introduces trafficking and describes that how it was emerged and how it came into existence in Bangladesh. The writer has mentioned in his article about human trafficking and how child trafficking has prevailed into a painful reality in Bangladesh. He also tells in his article what methodology he has used and how different sources were used to conduct this research. The writer after mentioning how different reports were useful, the writer starts to describe the concept of child trafficking. The writer has used many definitions relating to UN General Assembly including IOM, GAATW etc. the writer has mentioned the authentic definitions of child trafficking. Similarly the writer has used the def. of child trafficking defined by SAARC. The writer then mentions how trafficking started from Bangladesh. And where they traffic to and what advantage they are taken on. Who are the person who are the victim of trafficking and the writer has given a statically data table to show us how trafficking has remained in the following years. Causes of trafficking have been mentioned in which bases trafficking occur as well. The writer has emphasized 6 modes of trafficking. To give us a better understanding of how this trafficking flows. The writer has given detailed explanation of what kind of routes are taken up by the traffickers in order to traffic from Bangladesh to its destination source. The writer then puts light upon the lifestyle and culture of the traffic women and children and what challenges they undergo through. The writer coming to an end to his article mention how a person by birth as a slave and how a person gets to be a slave by forced trafficking are differentiated from one another. The writer ends up his article with his conclusion. Another article ” Sex Trafficking in South Asia” written by S. Huda. This article got published by International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics in 2006. In this article the writer has started this article by explaining us about the conflicts that has forced movements around the borders of South Asia. He has explained the reason as to why sex trafficking has emerged and what are the basis and factors that has led to contribute to this factor. The writer gas mentioned the def. of sex trafficking in the reflection of U. N. He told us the factors for the growth of this illegal act. The writer moves on with his article mentioning about the forms of human trafficking as how this has not only affected the women but also the male gender. He told how wars like countries like Afghanistan etc. people end up in sex trade. As well as caste system, discrimination has also led to human trafficking. The writer has also mentioned how women migrations have seize the opportunities and availabilities that offers them to migrate. Moving on the writer has summarized the patterns of sex trade in South Asia into nine ten points. The writer has mentioned that countries where human trafficking occur in South Asia centuries. He described Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka separately. The writer also mentioned how sex trafficking has serious public health implications on the victims. What kind of health issues they face. HIV/Aids are also discussed importantly along the sidelines of public health issues and its prevalence in South Asia. The writer has also mentioned the initiative and action being taken on this issue by different NGO and organization. He state 5 points that was in October 2004 in South Asia to stop trafficking. Coming to an end the writer has concluded with his final remarks. Another article named as ” Human Trafficking in Bangladesh: Overview” written by Ruh Afza Ruhi. This article got published by Asian Affairs, Volume 25, No. 4, 45-46, October-December, 2003. The writer has started this article by explaining us about the societal issue of human trafficking in Bangladesh. The different dimension of trafficking in Bangladesh has been observed i. e. child trafficking, women trafficking. The writer has defined trafficking and mentioned how its categorization has been outdated. She has emphasized how trafficking should have its definition been attached with its protection. She has used UN General Assembly 1994 definition to define trafficking to give us a better understanding that how that how legally is this illegal crime. She has also mentioned in her article about the two factions that has been categorized in human trafficking. One’s the demand factor that relates to the needs and demands in trafficking. And the other is supply that points towards the supply of trafficking. Each factor has been described separately. After a long detailed about the 2 factors the writer has mentioned the approx. quantity of how much trafficking has been done over the time. She mentioned how girls have fallen prey to subjects in the name of better jobs and future etc. she mentioned how international and national areas have come attentive to combat trafficking. She has discussed various efforts to combat trafficking in this regard. She has mentioned efforts i. e. 1) International efforts of how international organizations are working to protect the people of Bangladesh, 2) Government efforts where the writer has mentioned the government laws that has put this crime under chains and laws, 3) Donor efforts where the bilateral and multilateral donor are working and concerned, 4) NGO’s and Women Organization working for the cause to save people. The article ” Does poverty stem Human Trafficking in Pakistan” written by Naveed Mortaza, Imran Hanif and Imtiaz Ahmad Waraich. This article got published by Journal of Economic & Sustainable Development, Vol. 3, and Nov 10, 2012. This article is helping my present study as the writer has started this article by explaining us about the application of human trafficking. The article has focused on the human rights and for its betterment the writer has related it to the UNDHR. The definition of human trafficking is related toUNDHR. Their objective is to seek the determinants in Pakistan. The article explores the causes of why human trafficking occurs in Pakistan. The undeniable closeness between human trafficking and poverty, how they have a strong impact on each other is also discussed in this article. The impact and its result for the victim family as well as the physiologically analysis of the impact of human trafficking is also explained. The writers have mentioned a review of the preceding studies. Next the writers mentioned the concepts. The writers have used qualitative as well as quantitative for their article. The article has given the acceptance of poverty & human trafficking in Mirpur. The writer has concluded how economic deprivation has led people to become victims and how this whole cycle has affected the global peace. 4 main components were highlighted in the article that leads to trafficking: 1) push 2) pull 3) Donor 4) RecipientsAfter doing a detailed literature review the general gap found is that no one mentioned that how to differentiate between the victim and the survivor and when a nation combats against trafficking how does it impact and effects on the development. The link between development and trafficking is also not been listed. It is hypothesized that, human trafficking in South Asia is emerging as a global crime and global social issue in present time. Dependency theory tells us the interaction between developed and developing nations. It is said to be that the reason of existence of developed nations from they are extracting and exploiting it from the less developed nations. Dependency theory on internal level can be seen as being applied to region / cities within a state. Dependency theory points towards the level of dependency that has been increasing from time to time as we may see. Dependency theory relates with this research of how developing nations are befitting from the less developed country. How developing countries are being exploited, well the answer lies simple. It is the developed countries who are the clients of sex trafficking. It is known that exploitation of women and children of developing nations done by the developed nations. The developing nations are failing and falling behind.