# Thermodynamics of a laptop computer

Electronic computers currently have many orders of magnitude more thermodynamic process of freedom than information-bearing ones (bits). Because of this, these levels of description are usually considered separately as hardware and software, but as devices approach fundamental physical limits these will become comparable and must be understood together. Using some simple test problems, I explore the connection between the information in a laptop computer and the thermodynamic properties of a system that can implement it, and outline the features of a unified theory of the degrees of freedom in a laptop computer.

If we get plenty of laptops, we can use them as insulation if they surround the thermodynamic process. If we turn them on, they could produce heat. If we set them on fire, they will produce even more heat (at least short term). Alternatively we can use laptop(s) to perform computations and analysis of the mentioned processes.

If we’ve balanced a laptop computer on our lap lately, we probably noticed a burning sensation. That’s because ever-increasing processing speeds are creating more and more heat, which has to go somewhere — in this case, into our lap.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics, states that, left to it, heat will transfer from a hotter unit to a cooler one — in this case between electrical computer components — until both have roughly the same temperature, a state called ” thermal equilibrium.”

Introduced by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1871, the concept theorizes that the energy flow from hot to cold could be disrupted if there were a way to control the transfer of energy between two units. Maxwell’s Demon would allow one component to take the heat while the other worked at a lower temperature.

This could be accomplished only if the degree of natural disorder, or entropy, were reduced. And that’s the ” demon” in Maxwell’s Demon. ” Device engineering is typically based on operating near thermal equilibrium.

A closely related concept, Brownian ” ratchets,” will also be explored. This concept proposes that devices could be engineered to convert non-equilibrium electrical activity into directed motion, allowing energy to be harvested from a heat source.

If computers could be made with components that operate outside thermal equilibrium, it could mean better computer performance. Basically, our laptop wouldn’t burst into flames as it processes larger amounts of information at faster speeds. Also, because it would operate at extremely low power levels and would have the ability to harness, or scavenge, power dissipated by other functions, battery life would increase.

Laptop computers are unambiguously thermodynamic engines that do work and generate waste heat. It is hard to miss: Across the entire spectrum of machine sizes, power and heat are among the most severe limits on improving performance. So we say thermodynamics system is very important for laptop computer and it plays a vital role in a laptop computer.