During the 17th century Germans experienced political fragmentation, cultural disaffection, economic hardship and social discord. Germany lagged behind as compared to their European their neighbours due the war that lasted for thirty years. The war affected Germany such that it became classified as a modern state in the late 19th century. The effects of the war also affected Austria because they continued to fight the Turks until 1717. War is the reason that made the Baroque architecture to emerge everywhere else except Germany which it did in the late 17th century. The first Baroque churches were built between 1630 and 1730 on German territory in Austria in the classical Baroque style. The style was very decorative and it appealed to the people of German. The new style cannot be alienated from a socio-political context and its rise in Europe (Grafton 58).
North German state of Prussia gained tenure of various territories during the 17th century after the thirty year war was ended by Westphalia. The great elector Frederick William brought unity among scattered land and created them into the powerful protestant state. The protestant state became a major political player in Europe. Frederick III the son of Frederick William was wasteful and least effective among the four Prussian leaders who ruled between the year 1640 and 1786. In 1701 the emperor of the Hohenzollern family established Prussia as an independent monarchy. Frederick interest was mainly in the cultural arts. He had leadership and administrative skills during his reign and ruled with dedication and competence. After the death of Emperor Charles he seized Prussia until the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945 (Grafton 66).
Significant events during the time period and their historical importance
The 17th century marked religious wars between Catholics and Protestants within Germany which was previously known as the Holy Roman Empire. The religious conflict was a power struggle between kingdoms such as France and Spain. The Westphalia treaty marked the end of the war and a new onset of the modern state system was adopted. The memories of the Carolingian Empire are dated back to Rome. The Middle Age reality was based on feudalism, and Europe was divided into many political governed principalities such as feudal kingdom, free cities and duchies. Europe was later divided into a sovereign system with independent states which were governed by monarchs. German was divided into more than three hundred states based on the three religions which were Lutherans, Catholics and Calvinists. Lutheran Prussia and Catholic Austria were regarded as the two most important states referred as the Holy Roman Empire (Szechi 136). Despite the internal conflict that England experienced its built on its power and developed an overseas empire. This gradually replaced Netherlands and Spain as the two greatest sea powers. The revolution of England was slowly set to a liberal democratic and constitutional government. The most important aspect of the 17th century is that it marked the beginning of scientific and intellectual revolution in the areas of religion and knowledge.
How Fredrick’s reign affected the socio-political and economic development of Prussia
The dominant part of Germany signified territories which were ruled by Hohenzollern dynasties. East Prussia which was ruled by Teutonic Knights from the 13th century banned Jews from entering their territories. East Prussia became economically stable in the 15th century. Jews were part of the merchant class in Poland and East Prussia had to agree to trade with the Jewish merchants even though they had prohibited them from their territory. Frederick William became the master of Prussia and took the responsibility of principalities in Western Germany. Frederick II extended his father’s policies and extended to the Prussia population due to the economic importance. Frederick relied heavily on monetary manipulation but later encouraged people to create wealth in Prussia. He also ensured that taxes were levied and introduced silver marks which were delivered below face value. He implemented a medieval conception of the Christian state which was supported by the liberals in the states. He justified his policies implemented in the medieval period by saying that they enlightened despotism which was important for religious obligations and objectives to be achieved. Frederick insisted on ruling Prussia as a monarchy and as he grew older his psychology became hostile and this affected the development of Prussia. During the 19th century the economic, demographic and social factors of Prussian improved as the state underwent major changes. In spite of the economic, demographic and social factors the new German empire influenced Prussian within its political parties (Lemons 28).
Was the seven years war with Austria really necessary?
The war that broke in 1756 was between Great Britain and France. The conflict that allied Hanover and Prussia against France was supported by Austria. Troops from Britain and France were dispatched in equal numbers as the 7 year war began. The war was not necessary because it destroyed and created enmity between the two states. The war became a priority and the two states suffered socially, politically and economically. The aftermath of the war created a deep hostility from the unfinished business between Prussia and Austria. Treaties had to be signed for the war to come to an end. The move angered the Canadian allies and they attempted to prolong the war (Lemons 111). The seven years war was approximated to be a world war since its engagement included sea and land in America.
Grafton, Anthony, Glenn W. Most, and Salvatore Settis. The classical tradition. Cambridge,
Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2010. Print.
Lemons, Everette O. The Third Reich: a revolution of ideological inhumanity. United States:
Lulu Press, 2005. Print.
Szechi, Daniel. Nationalism and economic development in modern Eurasia. London: Routledge,