The research we have discussed has described transactional leader. What is the difference between transactional and transformational leaders? (4)
1. Transactional leaders are leaders who ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Transformational leaders are leaders who ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Transformational leadership is built on top of transactional leadership. You cannot have transformational without transactional leadership.
4. The evidence supporting the advantage of transformational leadership over the transactional is tremendously impressive.
5. A Table Comparing Transactional and Transformational Leadership:
Visionary vs Charismatic Leadership
Visionary leadership is described as with the ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future for an organisation or organisational unit that grows out of and improves on the present.
1. If the vision is properly selected and implemented, it can be so energising that it incites individuals to use their skills, talents and resources to make it happen.
2. The key properties of a vision are that it has inspirational possibilities that are value centred, are realisable, have better imagery and are well spoken.
3. What skills do visionary leaders have? (3)
Charismatic leadership theory is an extension of attribution theory and suggests that followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviours.
A charismatic leadership style can appear similar to a transformational leadership style, in that the leader injects huge doses of enthusiasm into his or her team, and is very energetic in driving others forward.
However, charismatic leaders can tend to believe more in themselves than in their teams.
Eight personal characteristics of charismatic leaders have been identified. (8)
2. An increasing amount of research shows impressive correlations between charismatic leadership and high performance and satisfaction among followers.
3. Most experts think that individuals can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviours.
4. Charismatic leadership may not always be needed to achieve high levels of employee performance. It may be most appropriate when an employee’s job has a lot of ideological content.
Quiz: Charismatic and Transformational Leadership
1. Charismatic leadership is best understood by examining:
a. leader characteristics
b. leader and subordinate characteristics
c. leader and situational characteristics
d. leader, subordinate, and situational characteristics
2. Which statement about transformational and charismatic leadership is most accurate?
a. both types of leadership involve the same underlying processes
b. both type of leadership are effective in any situation
c. charismatic leaders are less common in business organizations
d. charismatic leaders are more effective in business organizations
As the usage of work teams grows, the role of team leader becomes increasingly important.
1. The challenge for most managers is learning how to become an effective team leader.
2. Effective team leaders have mastered the difficult balancing act of knowing when to leave their teams alone and when to get involved.
3. How does an effective leader build and support teams? (5)
4. There are two priorities for a team leader. (2)
5. These priorities can be broken down into four specific leadership roles.
Quiz: Leadership in Teams and Decision Groups
1. Which of the following is not a primary determinant of performance for a functional team?
a. how long the current leader has been in that position
b. trust and cooperation among the team members
c. the organization and coordination of activities
d. member agreement about objectives and strategies
2. The primary responsibility of the leader of a decision group is to:
a. suggest good ideas for solving the problem
b. ensure that everybody has equal influence
c. encourage group members to reach an agreement quickly
d. structure the discussion in a systematic manner
3. Which leader action is most likely to improve a group decision?
a. ask judgmental questions to stimulate more creative solutions
b. separate solution generation from solution evaluation
c. determine who was responsible for causing the problem
d. insist that the person who suggests a solution must defend it
4. Which of the following is not recommended for leaders of decision groups?
a. focus the group discussion on the best two solutions
b. encourage members to look for integrative solutions
c. describe the problem without implying the cause or solution
d. allow ample time for systematic evaluation of ideas
LEADERSHIP ISSUES IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY.
Leaders and Power:
Leadership power refers to: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What is the difference between power and authority? (2)
Kelman (1958) proposed three different types of influence processes:
French and Raven (1959) identified five sources or bases of power. Explain them. (10)
1. Legitimate power ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Coercive power
3. Reward power
4. Expert power
5. Referent power
Yukl and Falbe (1991) add two more types of power:
1. Information Power
2. Ecological Power
Most effective leaders rely on several different bases of power. Power can be personal (referent and expert) or position (legitimate, reward, coercive, information, ecological).
How is power acquired or lost?
a. Social Exchange Theory
b. Strategic Contingencies Theory
Quiz: Power and Influence
1. What kind of power is dependent upon friendship and trust?
a. affiliation power
b. dyadic power
c. referent power
d. expert power
2. Which influence process is most likely to result in continued commitment to a task objective regardless of the manager’s subsequent actions?
a. instrumental compliance
b. personal identification
c. compliance with authority
3. Which two kinds of power have been found to be related most strongly to leader effectiveness in motivating subordinates?
a. expert and referent power
b. reward and referent power
c. expert and legitimate power
d. reward and expert power
4. Control over information is likely to give a manager power over:
b. subordinates and peers
c. peers and superiors
d. peers, superiors, and subordinates
5. Which is not a recommended way to increase one’s expert power?
a. show others how to solve problems for themselves
b. avoid making rash or careless statements
c. act confident and decisive in a crisis
d develop exclusive sources of technical information
6. The most likely outcome for an influence attempt based on legitimate power is:
a. passive resistance
c. active resistance
Leading through Empowerment:
Another modern leadership issue is leading through empowerment. Managers are increasingly leading by empowering their employees.
1. The increased use of empowerment is being driven by two forces. (2)
2. Empowerment should not be considered a universal solution to problems. Instead, it should be used where a workforce has the knowledge, skills, and experience to do jobs competently and where employees seek independence and possess an internal source of control.
3. The following conditions should be met for empowerment to be introduced (Cautions):
Quiz: Leading through empowerment
1. Leading through empowerment increases _______________ of the workers:
d. decision-making maturity
2. What is the most likely benefit from using participation in decision making?
a. the decision will be made more quickly
b. the quality of the decision will be better
c. there will be more decision acceptance by participants
d. there will be greater agreement among the participants
Another important modern issue for leaders is creating a culture of trust and credibility.
1. Credibility is __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Trust is __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. Research has identified five dimensions that make up the concept of trust. Explain them. (5)
4. Given the fact that many organisations have moved to self-managed work teams, trust is extremely important because many of the traditional control mechanisms have been removed.
5. How should leaders build trust? Give eight suggestions. (8)
Providing Moral, Ethical and Legal Leadership.
Providing moral leadership involves addressing the means that a leader uses in achieving goals. It involves the content of the goals as well. Transformational leaders encouraging moral values when they try to change the attitudes and behaviours of followers.
Unethical versus ethical leaders and the use of charisma. Recent corporate financial scandals have given rise to research that considers the ethical implications in leadership. The importance of ethical behaviour when it comes to trust.
Abuse of power as leaders, especially illegal activities.
In the last few years there have been questions raised about the integrity of business leaders and there are signs of doubt entering into the public’s perceptions of business.
Polls in the US show that just 16 per cent of Americans trust business executives.
US CEO makes 411 times the average worker.
CEO salaries in Australia and New Zealand have not been as huge as in the US, but have in the same upward direction.
Further resentment when rewards are given to CEO’s even when the company’s performance declines.
Failure of the ‘ heroic leader’ has resulted from arrogance and greed.
CEO’s role as organisational leader needs to change. CEOs need to get back to the basics of what it means to be a leader. Such as:
Give people a reason to come to work.
Help employees to develop a passion for their work, a commitment to their colleagues and sense of responsibility to the organisation’s customers.
Be loyal to the organisation’s people.
Spend time with people who do the real work of the organisation.
Today’s CEO needs to be candid about what business practices are acceptable and proper. They should be prepared to take decisive action when something wrong is discovered.
Becoming an effective leader.
Organisations are in need of effective leaders.
Do leadership styles vary with national culture? National culture is certainly an important situational variable in determining which leadership style will be most effective because of how followers will respond. Name 7 universal elements of effective leadership. (7)
Gender differences and leadership.
The next modern leadership issue we want to discuss is gender and leadership. This topic is one that still creates controversy! What, if any, differences exist between male and female leaders and what implications would these differences have?
1. The evidence generally has found that males and females do tend to use different leadership styles. This is not sexist, just reality. (3)
a. Women tend to adopt a more ____________________style and a less ________________________________style than men do.
b. Women are more likely to encourage participation, share power and information, and attempt to enhance followers’ self-worth.
c. Men are more likely to use a directive, command-and-control style.
d. Men rely on the formal authority of their position for their influence base.
e. Men use___________________________________ leadership, handing out rewards for good work and punishment for bad.
2. Is different better? Consider the following statement: “ The best managers (leaders) listen, motivate, and provide support to their people. They inspire and influence rather than control. Generally speaking, women seem to do these things better than men.” Do you agree? _____
3. However, gender does not mean destiny. Which leadership style is effective depends on the situation. Gender simply provides a behavioural tendency in leadership style.
4. “ Glass ceiling”: An unofficial, invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from advancing in the businesses. In economics, this term refers to situations where the advancement of a qualified person within the hierarchy of an organization is stopped at a lower level because of some form of discrimination, most commonly sexism or racism, but sometimes, “ glass ceiling” describes the limited advancement of the deaf, blind, disabled, and aged.
Quiz: Gender and Cross-cultural Leadership
1. Which statement is most accurate according to the research on gender and leadership?
a. men are more effective than women as leaders in organizations
b. women are more effective than men as leaders in organizations
c. men and women have an equal opportunity to be effective leaders
d. men and women do not differ in their effectiveness as leaders
2. Which is least likely to be a reason for the “ glass ceiling” in large organizations like business?
a. differences in leadership behavior displayed by men and women
b. implicit theories about the attributes required for effective leadership
c. popular stereotypes about the skills and traits of men and women
d. less encouragement and developmental opportunities for women
Organisations around the globe spend billions of dollars, yen and Euros on leadership training and development.
Some people do not have what it takes to be a leader. Evidence indicates that leadership training is more likely to be successful with individuals who are high self-monitors. Also individuals with higher levels of a trait called motivation to lead are more receptive to leadership development opportunities.
Skills that can be taught are implementation skills in relation to effective visions, trust building, mentoring and situational analysis.
Write down the three main challenges of online leadership:
Leadership Role-Play: Handling Confrontation (Mon):
In groups (min. 3 & max 4 people) think of a scenario in which a manager has to deal with employees about a problem in a workplace interview. Prepare a written script that you will hand a copy to your instructor when you do it. Appoint one person as the reporter, one person as the manager, and the rest as employees. The reporter sets the picture for us and the others act out the scenario in about 5 minutes. Then the reporter puts up a slide to summarize the leader-follower dynamics illustrated in the role-play, as reflected by the theory that we have learnt in the workbook. The class will then discuss this summary and analyze it further, drawing effective conclusions from the theory that we have learnt.
Three important questions to ask:
What kind of leadership style did the manager use?
What is his relationship like with the follower/s?
What do you think will be the outcome of the confrontation?