Issue: Comprehensive review of a strategy to eliminate future sexual exploitation and abuse in United Nations peacekeeping operationsStudent Officer: Lina MolloholliPosition: Dep. President of GA
INTRODUCTORY LETTER OF STUDENT OFFICER
Dear Delegates, My name is Lina Molloholli and I will be co-chairing the Special Political and Decolonization Committee of the 3rd Platon School Model United Nations. Firstly I would like to congratulate you all for participating in this conference, and especially in the Political Committee, since in that way you are called upon to make decisions on challenging topics, which have concerned the global society. Besides that, by participating in the MUN you will have the opportunity to learn about the crucial issues that are currently taking place in the world and practice your debating and speaking skills. MUN is a unique experience for every student and that’s why you should all take advantage of this great opportunity. In this year’s Political Committee, we will discuss three very crucial issues. One of them is the Comprehensive review of a strategy to eliminate future sexual exploitation and abuse in United Nations peacekeeping operations. In this study guide, you will find the essential background information that will help you initiate your research. The more you research for your position paper, the more interesting will the committee sessions be. In addition your policy statement will be your guide in the upcoming event. Finally make sure to take some time while writing your resolutions, as this will make the debating more fruitful. If you have any questions on the topic or your countries policy, please feel free to contact me by e-mail (dpga@ps-mun. gr). See you all very soon! Best wishes, Lina Molloholli
Sexual exploitation is a form of gender-based violence that is all too frequently a characteristic of warfare. In situations of armed conflict, girls and women are routinely targeted in campaigns of gender-based violence, including rape, mutilation, prostitution, forced pregnancy and sexual slavery. Rape has been used systematically as a weapon of war and as a means to terrorize populations and destroy community ties. Adolescent girls are especially vulnerable to rape, abduction, trafficking and prostitution. During humanitarian crises, girls and women are faced with limited economic opportunities. Desperate to support themselves and their families, they may be forced into alliances with military forces, including peacekeepers and even humanitarian personnel, as a means to negotiate safety and survival. Those who have been employed to protect vulnerable populations may abuse their power with impunity. C: UsersIronMan666Desktopposter_1_un_1_standard_burundi_en. jpgSexual abuse is an unwanted sexual activity, with perpetrators using force, making threats or taking advantage of victims not able to give consent. Most victims and perpetrators know each other. Immediate reactions to sexual abuse include shock, fear or disbelief. Long-term symptoms include anxiety, fear or post-traumatic stress disorder. While efforts to treat sex offenders remain unpromising, psychological interventions for survivors, especially group therapy appears effective.
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Gender Based Violence
Around the world, up to six of every ten women experience physical and/or sexual violence in their lifetime. During war or other humanitarian crises the risks to women and girls are further heightened. With the breakdown of moral and social order that occurs during emergencies, they are particularly vulnerable to physical abuse and exploitation, rape and human trafficking. Perpetrators may be family members, neighbors or others in the community, members of armed groups or in some instances, humanitarian workers. Even after a crisis abates, gender-based violence (GBV) may continue at high levels as communities struggle to heal and rebuild. http://www. issafrica. org/images/img_nodes/genderViolence. jpg
A humanitarian crisis (or ” humanitarian disaster”) is an event or series of events which represents a critical threat to the health, safety, security or wellbeing of a community or other large group of people, usually over a wide area. Armed conflicts, epidemics, famine, natural disasters and other major emergencies may all involve or lead to a humanitarian crisis.
Mutilation or maiming is an act of physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of any living body, sometimes causing death. Maiming, or mutilation which involves the loss of, or incapacity to use, a bodily member, is and has been practiced by many societies with various cultural and religious significances, and is also a customary form of physical punishment, especially applied on the principle of an eye for an eye.
A perpetrator is a person who has been determined to have caused or knowingly allowed the maltreatment of a person.
Prostitution is frequently alluded to as one of the possible long term effects of the sexual abuse of children. Consensus on a global definition of sexual abuse remains illusive, but the trend is to regard it as inappropriate sexual involvement between a minor (under 18) and a sexually matured person (at least 5 years older). Such behavior is intended to lead to sexual arousal and can range from fondling to intercourse.
A sex offender, or sexual abuser, is a person who has committed a sex crime. What constitutes a sex crime differs by culture and legal jurisdiction. Most jurisdictions compile their laws into sections, such as traffic, assault and sexual. Some of the crimes which usually result in a mandatory sex-offender classification are: a second prostitution conviction, sending or receiving obscene content in the form of SMS text messages (sexting), relationship between young adults and teenagers resulting in corruption of a minor.
Sexual slavery is the slavery of unwilling people who are coerced into that condition for sexual exploitation. The incidence of sexual slavery by country has been studied and tabulated by UNESCO, with the cooperation of various international agencies. Sexual slavery may include single-owner sexual slavery, ritual slavery sometimes associated with certain religious practices, slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes but where non-consensual sex is common, or forced prostitution.
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)
The sexual exploitation of children (SEC) entirely, or at least primarily, for financial or other economic reasons. The economic exchanges involved may be either monetary or non-monetary (i. e., for food, shelter, drugs) but, in every case, involves maximum benefits to the exploiter and an abrogation of the basic rights, dignity, autonomy, physical and mental well-being of the children involved.
Although children from all social and economic backgrounds are at risk of sexual abuse, those most vulnerable live in economically depressed situations. Street children are particularly vulnerable, as they have very few resources and networks to turn to for protection. Children in poverty-stricken countries can be more vulnerable if their families are desperate for income. It is far acknowledged that the most prevalent challenge to fight sexual exploitation is poverty. Other factors include: Organized CrimeCorruptionLuck of enforced lawsPornographyPromotion of sex tours on InternetUnemploymentDrugs and alcohol abuseLack of optionsLack of educationFurthermore, the ways children get involved in this business is rather shocking. It is a common case for orphan and uncared children to be lured into the sex industry, and then to deal with psychological effects.
MAJOR COUNTRIES AND ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED
United States of America
Child sexual exploitation has long been a known evil in developing countries where the combination of tourism and poverty make for a lucrative business. But at least 300, 000 children and adolescents are prostituted every year in the United States, according to a 2001 University of Pennsylvania study. According to another study, more than 2, 200 of them are in New York City.
The commercial sexual exploitation of children, including their enticement into prostitution and the use of children in the production of pornographic material, is a fairly recent phenomenon in Russia. Up until the mid-1990s, there were only a few, isolated instances of such offences. Since then, however, Russia, too, has been affected by the spread of this worldwide social scourge. The Russian government is aware of the seriousness of the problem and is working to improve national legislation and law-enforcement practice in this area.
People’s Republic of China
The People’s Republic of China (P. R. C.) is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. China is a transit country for trafficked victims destined to Thailand and Malaysia for commercial sexual exploitation, forced marriage, illegal adoption, begging, and forced labor.
The past two decades have given rise to an increased level of understanding and awareness concerning the sexual exploitation of children. In Canada, there are three broad categories of criminal behavior which can be grouped under the term child sexual exploitation (CSE): child sexual abuse, child pornography, and child prostitution. These categories, however, are clearly not mutually exclusive. For example, child sexual abuse victims are often also victims of child pornography. For the purposes of this article, however, the three categories will be presented as three distinct types of criminal behaviour. In Canada there is the Criminal Code of Canada which says that: C: UsersLinaDesktopc-g-3-eng. gifEvery person commits an offence who is in a position of trust or authority towards a young person, who is a person with whom the young person is in a relationship of dependency or who is in a relationship with a young person that is exploitative of the young person, and whoa. for a sexual purpose, touches, directly or indirectly, with a part of the body or with an object, any part of the body of the young person; orb. for a sexual purpose, invites, counsels or incites a young person to touch, directly or indirectly, with a part of the body or with an object, the body of any person, including the body of the person who so invites, counsels or incites and the body of the young person. UN INVOLELVEMENT: RELEVANT RESOLUTIONS, TREATIES AND EVENTShttps://si0. twimg. com/profile_images/843793517/logo. jpgA/RES/60/289A/RES/60/263A/RE/60/1
Luring anyone into the sex trade, and forcing them to have sex in exchange for money, drugs, shelter, food, protection or other necessities, is sexual exploitation. It’s a crime. And it’s particularly harmful when children are involved. Understanding how children and adults become sexually exploited is part of creating effective solutions. Raising awareness of the unacceptability of child sexual abuse, and promoting the notion that stopping child sexual abuse is everyone’s responsibility. All adults and adolescents need to know that child sexual abuse is a crime that often causes severe damage to children that help is available for those who seek it, and that children can never consent to sexual activity. Educating the public, especially policymakers, about the true nature of child sexual abuse. The wide dissemination of accurate information to the public, especially to policymakers, will help break the silence and taboo that surrounds child sexual abuse, and may facilitate the formulation of effective solutions to the problem. Further, a comprehensive prevention strategy should include increasing the awareness and knowledge of parents and other caregivers about protective measures they may take on behalf of their children. What citizens in neighborhoods should do? Report child sexual exploitation to their local child and family service agencyCreate awareness of the issuesHold community meetings throughout their neighborhoodParticipate in community co-ordination effortsExplore mediation optionsExamine the neighborhood’s physical spaceCheck out neighborhood safety resourcesIdentify neighborhood dangers and learn how to deal with themHelp protect neighborhood childrenWork with law enforcement agencies