Role conflict, Incompatible values of different members, Deviation of a member or members from values of their group or community or society, Interjection or introduction of values that are hitherto not known to members of that group. Role conflict-This occurs as a result of an individual or group of individuals playing different roles in different organization. For instance, if Mr. [x] is a foreman in Construction Company [A], and a site supervisor in construction company [B], his role in company [A] may conflict with that in company [B] and result in value conflict.
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Incompatible values of different members – Members of a particular construction company come from various backgrounds with their different values and are united under one value of the organization they work for, now some of them are Christians, Muslims, Hindus etc such diversity in religion might trigger off a value conflict in the organization set-up. Deviation of a member or members from values of their group or society- If and when a member or members deviate from laid down rules or values of an organization or society, such deviations will no doubt result to value conflict.
For instance, “ if the value of a construction company is to ensure that safety rules are followed and applied to the least. And some within the organization refuse to adhere to such rules, definitely a value conflict arises. ” (Hutton G. H. and Devonald A. D. G. 1973) Interjection or introduction of values that are hitherto not known to members of that group- If some members try to introduce a new and strange concept or ideologies that are alien to that group, there is bound to be resistance from members and that will result to value conflict.
Ways of resolving value conflict No doubt value conflict arises, but as rational beings there are definitely ways by which these value conflicts can be resolved. “ These dynamics are present to different degrees among the employees within a corporation or the members of a small band of hunter-gatherers, and in all cases, mechanisms for the regulation of conflicts should be in place. ” (Aureli, F & Frans B. M. Waal. 2000). Some of these are given below.
Adjustment or withdrawal- As the case of role conflict, if one’s role in an organization conflicts with his value in another organization or in his own personal belief then he should adjust to accommodate or withdraw from any such role that he least prefers. Integration-If in the case of deviation of a member or members from values of their group or organization, punishment is melted out and if such member or members repent, they should be integrated back into the fold.
Lewicki, Saunders, and Minton noted that Integrative bargaining is best used when. Parties have a maximized joint outcomemotivation, have a problem solving, non-vitriolic style, are highly motivated to find optimal solutions, are not under extreme time pressure, have specific bargaininggoalsand fairly high aspirations, expect a future relationship where cooperation is necessary, have expendable resources using creativity, and truthfully reveal their costs, benefits.
(Lewicki, Saunders, and Minton, 1999) Tolerance and secularity- This one applies to the area of religion, were conflict arise as a result of religion, tolerance and secularity should be introduced into such group or organization. Having looked at a whole lot of issues under value, it becomes imperative that we take a look at how this “ human value” influences the way we work. Value is what keeps anyhuman beinggoing and it also bring out the best in him or her.
It has also become one important factor that government and organizations wittingly make use of in order to achieve their set objectives. If we are to take a look back in time, we will see that over the years in whichever organization this values are rightly positioned optimum result are achieved. If the value an organization has impacted into its members is that of belief, it will have an evaluative impact on their outcome that is before production is finally completed, it will undergo a lot of evaluation to ensure that nothing but the best is given.
The cognitive effect is there, this enables members to know and recognize the correct and proper procedure by which things should be done; behavioral aspect also comes in under this area. The belief in members will eventually lead to a behavioral pattern which becomes peculiar to them. When all these factors mentioned above under value as belief are effectively and efficiently cohered, it has a positive effect on outcome because the mind set is already in motion to give the best given the above mentioned factors.
We take a look at how value as means and ends affects outcome. – Here, we have terminal and instrumental. WE will discuss two factors from each, under terminal we have personal and social, under personal there is individualism and peace . Individualism is simply the belief that the right and freedom of the individual should be guaranteed since individual are the various parts that make up the whole in any organization, their rights should be respected and guaranteed.
If they feel they are being used as slaves by the organization, this will greatly affect their productive capabilities and hence their best not given, but if the reverse is the case, then increase in productivity is guaranteed. Peace of mind – When anyone working in an organization has peace of mind, the sky becomes the limit of such a person, and his outcome will be greatly multiplied since his or her best is given. But if such a one is troubled by both internal and external factor more especially the internal factor, outcome will be adversely affected.
One social, we have security, now everybody loves security of job, life and property. If the worker has or feels any sense of insecurity, then the outcome will be poor, his full productive capacity will not be given but if he feels secured especially that of his job, then the organization can be rest assured that they will get the best from him. The same applies to peace. Under instrument, we have moral and competence. Under moral we have conscience and honesty while under competence we have intelligence and skill.
Conscience, this is what applies to the mind, if workers are well grounded in issues that borders on conscience and are able to discern good from bad they will be able to make decisions that will keep the reputation of the firm and will win the trust of their customers which will in turn ensure continuity, but if not outcome may “ close down”. Honesty, another mind concept this value if well impacted by the organization has enormous gains because members will be faithful in all their duties in order to ensure increased outcome. But when this is absent, the tendency for workers to defraud the firm and their customers will be on the high side.
Intelligence, if organization has this value of always ensuring that members or workers are intelligent enough to occupy a position, and then they can be rest assured that the outcome that will come from such will not be disappointing. But when a “ square- peg” is put in a “ round role”, then the result is obvious, Disaster. Skill- This is another important factor in value orientation, when an organization is well known as having this value of imparting skills on members, it becomes obvious that laudable outcome will come from such group of workers, but when unskilled people are engaged in productivity outcome will equal to zero.
From the values we have taken a look at, we clearly see that they are directly related to outcome. Because the orientation members get is what will definitely determine the nature of their outcome. If the values being impacted are negatively oriented, then outcome will be negative in nature and vice- versa. It is of great importance then that organization should take “ HUMAN VALUE” as a major factor in the establishment and running of their system in order to ensure and maximize profit which is the aim of any organization