The research design utilized in this case was the Pretest-posttest design. This is a design where a single sample of the population is measured using the dependent variable before and after the independent variable has been manipulated. The appropriateness of this type of design in the conduction of the study is clear because of the unique nature of the study where the sample is prone to the exhibition of various dynamics based on the manipulation of the independent variable.
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The sample population of the research was well defined and incorporated individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) including those with post acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as well as those with angina after percutaneous coronary intervention. The inclusion criteria of the participants included; mental competence, ability to communicate verbally, ability to write and read in Arabic and finally the age of more than 18 years. The exclusion criterion included patients with life threatening the life-threatening cormobirdities. The method used to calculate the sample size was clearly defined. This method was the use of the G power 3. 0 software and a two tailed paired t-test to give a sample total size 102 study participants. Such a sampling method was fully fitting to the research design adopted. There was no description of potential sample biases since none were identified. The final sample size of 102 participants incorporated into the study was sufficiently large enough to give credible results. The researchers also used the power analysis that included a power level of 0. 80, an effect size of 0. 30 and an alpha level of 0. 05 to demonstrate the adequacy of the sample size of 82 participants. The final sample size was however 102 which was justified by the assumption of an attrition rate of 25%. It is evident from the study that the results established could be generalized for all Jordanian patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
The main instrument for data collection utilized in this study was a structured questionnaire. The rationale for the utilization of this instrument was that it enabled the collection of data that fully achieved the purpose of the study. The questionnaire consisted of three parts including demographic, coronary heart disease awareness and knowledge questionnaire and finally an adherence scale. These parts ensured that the entire instrument was congruent with the research question which was to test the effect of cardiac educational program on the level of knowledge and adherence to healthy lifestyle among patients with coronary artery disease in the north of Jordan. Given the size of the sample, the instrument adopted was also appropriate because the use of another instrument could not have been sufficient for such a large sample size. Another critical feature captured in the article was the testing for the reliability and the validity of the instruments used. For instance, the face validity of the instruments used in the study was evaluated by four cardiovascular diseases experts working in various Jordanian Universities’ faculties. The results indicated that the instruments were indeed valid and reliable and measure essentially measures what they were indeed designed to measure.
Tawalbeh, Loai. I and Ahmad Muayyad M. (2013). The effect of cardiac education of knowledge and adherence to healthy lifestyle. Clinical Nursing Research, 20(10), 1-14
Houser, J. (2012). Nursing research: reading, using, and creating evidence. (2nd ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett.