In this case the intention of the seller is unethical, as he is providing products not up to the mark.
Categorical imperative II Rational agents: Alexis and the student In the article, Alexis can be termed as a means to achieve the target of doing extra research projects using an unauthorized access. The intention of doing this has made her succeed in gaining scholarship from a prestigious university. In conclusion Alexis wanted scholarship by any means and the end result provided her success although she did it in an illegal way, therefore it is regarded to be considered as unethical. Scenario 2 Rational Agents: Organization and the innocent people In this article, it was an end to the means as the end result was to reduce the percentage of spam which was successful. It isn’t means to the end as the organization was hopefully expecting their effort to be paid off which did not happen in this case instead they were regarded as a negative point which changed the whole impact. Hence the action is immoral as it took the wrong side to end up in the final result. Scenario 3 Rational Agents: EST.
and five members of terrorist organization According to this article, it is an end to the means as the overall result was to reduce the number of people speeding on East Dakota freeways whereas the means was to issue the speeding ticket to the driver if the driver’s license photo matched the registered owners of the car which shows us that it is unethically immoral as five members were arrested being in a terrorist organization which brings up that there were people driving not their own cars, this concludes to the end by saying either people were riving without license or they weren’t using their own cars or they did not have a car to drive. Scenario 4 Rational Agents: Company and the customers According to the article, the goal is that the product should be available next week but due to problems it will take one month so in this scenario it isn’t a means to an end as they wouldn’t want their customers depressed in using their product with bugs however customers are still depressed as they were awaiting for their product to release in a weeks time but looks like another market will release it and the following month their product will release. Therefore it is considered as being moral as for the customers benefit they are postponing their due date in releasing the product. References Quinn, Michael J. 2011, Ethics for the Information Age, Pearson Education, United States of America. Utilitarianism Rule Description: It’s described to be the ethical theory that has a moral rule adopted by everyone and result in maximizing and having greatest to happy satisfied individuals. Moral Rule: ‘ If I am a school student in need of computer facilities the steal a college student’s ID to complete my work Positives: ; This gives a chance to less fortunate a way to excel and make them h tit a brighter future ; It removes loads of burdens from both her an earning that scholarship, she’ll ultimately we’ll be happier towards the less fortunate can escape from the place their living to a better place them happier citizens ; The government’s will be happier since more college graduates increases the level of standard and creates a safer decreasing the number of gangs around the cities.
Negatives: ; ID theft will burden the ID holder since they’ll be holding responsible misdemeanors that is done by the high school student, because not eve as innocent as Alexia, where they might huge amount of harm to the ID heft also causes huge work on the IT department hence causing the RESULT: Immoral since more number of people will be burdened than Scenario 2 Moral Rule: ‘ In the name of security, the organization should be capable any SIPS that might cause and create harmful spam’ Positives: ; The companies established in the US and the US citizens will be safe from any harm that a spam could possibly create. Thus making them removes a huge burden from all companies citizens and many comps engineers from going through loads of work that is created by the spa ; Business associates will be burdened by the loss of connection through cost essential ways to connect that is mail. Hence for one transaction more time hence creating unhappy workers.
; International companies difficulties in connecting with there other branches in east Asia which loss of time to create a service or product hence unhappy companies customers. ; The loss of email between the US and east Asia is difficult many citizens in both countries because the loss connection with love family or friends can create severe unhappiness in both areas and no East Asia will lose many great opportunities coming from the US since communication between two got harder. Result: More harm done that (number of unhappy people outweighs the number of happy people) immoral Scenario 3 Moral Rule: ‘ Any action should be taken by the higher authorities for t the nation’ Positives: ; Less speeding = less accidents = less number of death = happier pee Information taken by the FBI = arresting terrorists = many lives rescued = safer and a more serene community = more confidence towards the Higher authorities = happier citizens and authorities Negatives: ; Breech of personal privacy Result: When life is at stake it’s Moral to keep it safe. Therefore it’s MORAL Scenario 4 Moral Rule: ‘ My item should be released first if the competition is fierce even if there are minor bugs’ Positives: ; I as an owner will be happier releasing this product since it’s first of it’s kind hence I’ll maintain my business and gain maximum number of customers.
The workers will be satisfied and this because they get to keep there Jobs and the owner gets to keep the company. Negatives: ; If bugs intruded with product’s function customer will realize and lose trust towards the company, hence customers will be unhappy and the company will lose many customers hence they’ll be unhappy ; Customers will also be burdened through the process to fixing the product leading to more burden on the companies’ software engineers. Result: Immoral (since more displeased people than pleased) Act utilitarianism Scenarios Affected parties: Alexis, Lexis’s parents, the student whose id and password which was stolen by Alexis, the library and the Lexis’s high school. Benefits: ; Alexis benefited by getting her extra research projects done by using the library’s PC and the student’s id and password.
; Alexis got full-scholarship to attend a registries university so this way she doesn’t need to earn for the purpose of paying her college fees. ; Alexis parents were happy as their daughter got full-scholarship. ; Alexis did not have to wait in long queues, as she used the nearby private college’s library. Harms: ; The student’s whose id and password which was stolen by Alexis, may have experienced usage of unauthorized printing credit. ; The librarian would be held responsible for letting an outside student (Alexis) entering the library and using its services. This might cause a risk to the librarian’s Job.
Alexis is not getting the infinite of using their high school facilities as her school is not providing enough facilities for doing her extra research projects. The benefits have outweighed the harms, thus we can consider Lexis’s action to be moral. Affected parties: Ann-spam organization, spammed, and people in United States and East Asian countries.
Benefits: ; Due to the anti-spam organization black listing some Sips, there was a drop by 25 percent of spam mails received in United States, so this benefited some people in U. S. Who were suffering from serious spam mails.
Harms: ; Some innocent people in East Asian countries could not send mails to people United States, as there Sips were wrongly blacklisted by the anti-spamming organization. Some spammed who could no longer send spam mails had a disadvantage, as there Sips were black listed. The harms outweigh the benefits so this shows that the action of black listing some Sips by the anti-spam organization was immoral. Affected parties: East Dakota State Police, FBI, drivers who are traveling on the freeway overpasses and terrorists. Benefits: ; DEEDS can easily identify the speeders and catch hold of them, and this would reduce the amount of accidents due to speeding, which benefits the society as a hole. ; FBI could catch five members of a terrorist organization by using the information collected by the video cameras.
Harms: ; Terrorists got caught due to the video cameras installation. Therefore, as the benefits of installing a video cameras on all freeway passes, prevails the harms, this action will be moral. Affected parties: Senior software engineer, competitors, salespeople, the company who is launching the new product and the corporation which is being told that the product would be launching next week.
Benefits: ; The competitors would have an advantage to be the first ones to market the reduce, if the company does not market it first. ; Due to the launching of the new product, the salespeople would have their work easily done through their smart phones. Harms: ; The major corporation who were told by the company that they are launching the new product next week, so the action of not launching it next week would affect the reputation of the company. ; The software engineer’s reputation is affected; this will lead to the opportunities for the engineer in the market to decrease. ; The company would face losses due to launching the product late and will loose its customers. Thus, the harms outweighs the benefits, so this shows immorality. Social Contract: According to the scenario the rational agents involved are Alexis, Alexis High School, Library, The student from the private university and the students in Alexis high school, Alexis family.
As per the scenario all the parties mentioned above had their own rights and all of them were affected in different ways; ; Alexis: had the positive right to study and since her university was not providing her with the facilities she violated the rights of another university and used another student’s identity in order to fulfill her desire tit the intention of getting her work done. ; Alexis High School: it’s the high schools duty to ensure that all students should have an easy access to the schools resources but since they could not provide the students with extra help many students who could not find help unlike Alexis must have failed to get the scholarship. ; Library: they should ensure that only an authorized member of the library should have access to its resources which they failed to do so. ; Student from the private university: the student who’s id Alexis had stolen his/her rights were also been elated. Ale’s family: Ale’s family had the right to be happy and so they were since according to them their daughter was benefiting so it was ethically right according to the family.
According to Social contract theory which is based on rights unlike intentions Ale’s actions were immoral. Scenario 2: Rational Agents: Anti-Spam Organization Spammed , Black listed SIPS, People in East Asian Countries& United States, Innocent SIPS Rights and the ways in each party was affected ; Anti-Spam Organization; It’s the duty of the organization to blacklist the spammed ND they did their Job but without inspecting the correct spammed. ; Spammed; it’s their right to send spam because that’s what their Job is but at the same time they are sending unwanted spam to people which is illegal. People in US & East Asian countries; it is their right to stay in touch with friends and families and also trade in the other part of the world and Just because of the anti-spam organization the innocent people and the business associates had their rights were violated since they had issues trading and contacting each other.
; Innocent SIPS; people who were tot spammed were affected by the actions of the anti-spam organization in a worse way and their rights were violated Just because of the other organizations duties. According to social contract theory the actions of the anti-spam organization were moral. The Rational agents in this scenario are, the DEEDS, the drivers of the vehicle, FBI and the terrorists. The rights of each party and the ways in which they are affected, ; DEEDS; it’s their duty to put a speeding limit to the drivers since it is benefiting the society itself. ; Vehicle drivers; it’s the right of the drivers to drive safely and informally but without violating the rules.
; FBI; the rights of the FBI is to do proper investigation and get into each in every detail which will lead to violate human life or human right. ; Terrorists; it’s their right for not getting caught and by putting the cameras their rights being violated. According to the social contract theory the actions of the DEEDS and FBI were moral since their actions were legal and were based on human life protection.