Nonprofit evaluation questions

Nonprofit evaluation questions Technical approaches to enhancing validity and reliability Reliability refers to the ability to generate similar results from a repeated exercise while validity refers to degree of truth in a research’s results and conclusions. Increasing validity and reliability of a research involves improving level of accuracy and counter proving alternative opinions. Some of the technical approaches to enhancing validity and reliability are elimination of noise factors (Montello and Sutton, 2008), triangulation and “ testing of rival explanations” (Woodside, 2008, p. 85). Eliminating noise converge observations to accurate values and as a result enhances accuracy towards reliability and validity. Triangulation however eliminates effect of chance observations while evaluation of rival opinions develops credibility of a researcher’s findings (Montello and Sutton, 2006; Woodside, 2008).
Application of honesty and integrity in the evaluation process
Some of the areas of evaluation that requires honesty and integrity are identification of the nature of relationship between variables, determination of the best model of fit and identification of possible variations from the best model. Both honesty and integrity influences an evaluator’s decision on whether to communicate exact observations or exercise bias in the areas of evaluation. Exercising honesty and integrity however ensures communication of the exact relationship between the variables, accurate determination, and implementation of the model of best fit as well as accurate communication of identified noise and noise factors. These initiatives facilitate validity and reliability of research results and conclusions (Montello and Sutton, 2006).
Abstract concept of evaluation and its definition
An example of an abstract concept of evaluation, in my organization’s environment, is low staff morale with respect to staffs’ faculty. Staff morale refers to the level of confidence or motivation among employees and can be evaluated using qualitative research methods (Montello and Sutton, 2006).
Applicable sample approaches
The best sampling approach when a researcher has access to the entire population is stratified random sampling. The approach considers differences in characteristics among groups of the population to reflect strata features in results and conclusions besides reducing unit costs in data collection. “ Non probability convenience sampling” however, is the most appropriate in cases where the subjects are hard to find as the technique is guided by the research questions (Biber, 2010, p. 50).
Approach to collecting sensitive data
The best approach to collecting sensitive data is through developing the participant’s trust. This is because winning the participants’ confidence that the sensitive information will be safeguarded makes them secure enough to offer the required information without fear of adverse consequences. Collecting data on a disease’s prevalence rate for example requires participants’ confidence that their private information will not be disclosed (Biber, 2010).
Applicable statistics in evaluation
Some of the applicable statistics in point ‘ Likert’ scales include the mean, mode, and standard deviation. I would use the three statistics because they offer basic characteristics of data that are understandable to a wider audience (Montello and Sutton, 2006).
Determining existence of significant difference between groups
In order to determine existence of significant difference between categorical responses, among men and women for instance, I would formulate a set of hypothesis and use regression analysis to test the hypothesis (Montello and Sutton, 2006).
Biber, S. (2010). Mixed methods research: Merging theory with practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press
Montello D. and Sutton, P. (2006). An introduction to scientific research methods in geography. London, UK: SAGE
Woodside, A. (2008). Advances in culture, tourism and hospitality research. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing