Mitosis is a process of cell duplication, or reproduction, where one during this process gives growth to two identical daughter cells; however, there is no crossing over. Mitosis is asexual and has 1 division of the nucleus in cytokinesis (Simon, Reece, & Dickey, 2010). Meiosis is the splitting up of germ cells, with each possessing half the number of & Dickey, 2010). Meiosis is sexual and has 2 nuclear and cytoplasmic divisions. However, one must remember they both are preceded by Interphase. Meiosis produces haploid, diploid, and gametes cells.
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The gamete cells are known as sex cells that occur in the reproductive organs, and meiosis has sex cells whereas mitosis does not (Simon, Reece, & Dickey, 2010). The diploid cells split up to form four haploids (form of cell division that most eukaryotic cells undergo), however, only half of the chromosomes are the parent cells and occurs in all organisms that have sex cells (Simon, Reece, & Dickey, 2010). Ex: humans, animals, most fungi, and plants. Mitosis is the form of cell division that most eukaryotic cells undergo.
Related reading: Why is Pinching of the Cytoplasm Inadequate for Cytokinesis in Plant Cells
In humans, all somatic (non-sex) cells use mitosis to divide. This does occur in all organisms and can make everything other than sex cells. This involves two cell divisions called meiotic divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II). In mitosis cells are usually created by normal cell division and where one organism or cell reproduces itself. It is then that normal cell divisions are used by multicellular organisms for reproduction, and in multicellular organisms for growth, maintenance, and repair (Simon, Reece, & Dickey, 2010). Ex: skin repair, replace damaged cells, asexual reproduction) In mitosis multicellular organisms is used to reproduce asexually (Simon, Reece, & Dickey, 2010). Ex: When one clips a piece of a house plant, one can watch as the plant starts to grow from the cells that have been reproduced. Meiosis process is used when one organism or cells reproduces by crossing with another organism or cell (Simon, Reece, & Dickey, 2010).
In multicellular organisms, the step between the diploid and haploid transition the organism grow, and use diploid stem cells to undergo meiosis and create haploid gametes; it is then they become fertilized (ovum and sperm) to form the zygote (earliest developmental stage of the embryo and where it begins to divide to produce offspring) (Simon, Reece, & Dickey, 2010). In mitosis sister chromatids separate during anaphase stage where they become daughter cells of mitosis, and become 2n cells which equals 4; therefore, they equal four haploid cells in each daughter cell (Simon, Reece, & Dickey, 2010).
At the end of the anaphase stage the daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent’s cell with the result providing growth, tissue repair, and asexual reproduction (Simon, Reece, & Dickey, 2010). In meiosis I, during anaphase I the homologous separate and the sister chromatids remain together and end with two haploid cells (Simon, Reece, & Dickey, 2010). However, each chromosome still have two sister chromosomes, N equals 2 haploid cells; therefore, they equal two haploid cells in each daughter cell with the end resulting is sexual reproduction (Simon, Reece, & Dickey, 2010).
Meiosis II, anaphase II the sister chromatids separate, however, if chromosomes fail to separate (nondisjunction) at anaphase the cells can become abnormal resulting in different disorders such as downs syndrome or one can miscarry (Simon, Reece, & Dickey, 2010). Meiosis involves the production of gametes (as egg and sperm), without meiosis the reproduction of life form would stop, and organisms would not be able to reproduce. If mitosis didn’t occur organisms would die.
This is why cells undergo cellular respiration; this is needed for one to breathe. Gametes are needed for sexual reproduction, with these cells live would no longer exist. Organisms need mitosis in order to grow or replace damaged cells (skin) without this process organism would not have this potential. Mitosis and Meiosisare both important processes, without these processes growth and creation would not be possible. These two processes are responsible for the growth of new organisms, growth of existing organisms, and the circle of life.