Mind Map-Chronic Asthma


Asthma is a major reason for admission of cases in the emergency department. Asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation of airways a recurrent breathlessness, coughing, wheezing and chest tightness (Manfredi, 2011, p. 695). Asthma is acute is sudden and presents after a short period of time upon exposure to an allergen. Acute asthma is very fatal, and requires immediate intervention. On the other hand, chronic, also referred to as intrinsic presents symptoms after a long period of time, and it the disease progression is also long.


According to Martinez and Ferguson (2009), asthma is the most prevalent lung disease in the entire world. Most cases presenting in the emergency department are hospitalized, and available interventions are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. 4% of admitted asthma cases progress on to become life-threatening asthma. More males in comparison to females get asthma until the age of 30 years.


To begin with the smooth muscles of the larger bronchi swell due to the attachment of histamine to receptor sites. Subsequently, the smooth muscles of the smaller bronchi swell as the leukotrienes attach to receptor sites. The leukotrines alongside the prostaglandins circulate through the bloodstream and aggravate the effects of histamine. Histamine triggers the secretion of excessive mucus from the mucous membranes, and this causes increased constriction of the bronchial lumen. The constricted lumen expands minimally upon inhalation, but closes completely after exhalation due to an escalation of intrathoracic pressure.

The lung bases fill with mucus and this subsequently prevents alveolar ventilation. Despite the fact that blood is shunted to alveoli in other parts of the body, there is still reduced ventilation. Life threatening asthma is that which leads to respiratory failure in spite of medical therapy.


Acute asthma is sudden and the sequence leading to airway obstruction and inflammation is different in comparison to chronic asthma. Otherwise, clinical presentation and management of the two diseases has been shown to be similar in various literature (Enright & Schreuder, ).


Genetics is associated with the intrinsic type of asthma that is attributed to internal and nonallergenic factors as opposed to external substances. The genes on chromosomes 5,6,11,12, and 14 predispose an individual to asthma. Individuals with inherited asthma use bronchodilators and corticosteroids over the long-term.


Leukotriene receptor antagonists are also used to manage asthma. In cases where drugs are not able to control asthma symptoms, maintenance drugs are used to help individuals deal with recurrent exacerbations.


Basically, there is no clear difference between acute and chronic asthma. Chronic asthma is usually genetic and occurs over a long-period of time. Acute asthma is sudden and presumed to be stimulated by external factors.

Mind Map-Acute Asthma.

Mind Map-Chronic Asthma.


Doughlas, G., & Elward, K. (2010). Asthma: Clinician’s Desk Reference. London: Manson Publishing.

Enright, S., & Schreuder, F. (2013). Management of respiratory diseases. In S. Porter. (Ed.).Tidy’s Physiotherapy. London: Saunders Elsiever. (p. 83-127).

Manfredi, R. (2011). Asthma. In R. V. Aghababian, S. Bird, G. Braen, B. Krauss, J. McCabe, J. Moorhead, J. Nagler & G. Volturo. (Eds.). Essentials of emergency medicine (2nd ed.). Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett learning (p. 695-701).

Martinez, H., & Ferguson, N. (2009). Life-threatening Asthma: Focus on Lung Protection. In Vincent, J.-L. (Ed.). Intensive Care medicine: Annual Update 2009. New York: Springer-Verlag (p. 372-384).

McCann, J., Robinson, J., Kasmer, E., Labus, D., Eckman, M., Bartelmo, J., …Ruhf, L. (2011). Professional Guide to Pathophysiology (3rd ed.). ambler: LLippincott Williams & Wilkins.