The most consistent feature of the various religions that originated in India is belief in karma and reincarnation. HINDUISM Hindus call their religion Assonant Dharma, which means Everlasting Teaching. Hinduism has no single founder, and is not centrally organized. Who is a Hindu? A Hindu is anyone who accepts the authority of the Veda. Is a native Indian and not a Parse (Zoroastrian), a Jew, a Christian or a Muslim; or is a non-native convert to Hinduism. ; does not claim not to be a Hindu.
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Hinduism is an intersection of folk religion and speculative philosophy. It is an ethnic Indian religion, without central organization, rooted in the Veda. Hinduism is a kaleidoscope of religious practices and doctrines. Hinduism is analytical of human nature. It teaches multiple paths to liberation. A path of discipline, or Marge, is also called a yoga. A Hindu selects a yoga according to Individual personality. There are four mall yoga (paths to union): ; karma yoga-?? work, action Joana yoga-?? knowledge backbit yoga-?? devotion raja yoga-?? mental discipline An early Indus Valley civilization flourished until 1700 B.
C. E. But was In decline by the time the nomadic Aryans arrived In the region from the west around 1500 B. C. E. The Aryans called the earlier Inhabitants Ideas. The Aryan migration amounted to an invasion. The Ideas worshipped a Mother Goddess (Devil) and possibly a Proto-Shiva, and their beliefs included the seeds of the doctrines of karma and reincarnation. The Aryans adopted some of the Dravidian gods. The worship by the Aryans centered upon a sacrificial fire on a low earthen altar under the open sky. Various animal and vegetable offerings were given, Including ghee (clarified butter) and soma.
Later, lassie Hinduism would replace sacrifice with pupas (acts of devotion). Originally, the Aryans did not make images of their gods, nor did they build temples. The oldest Hindu scriptures, whose name means knowledge or wisdom, are the Veda. To be considered an orthodox Hindu, one must acknowledge the authority of the Veda. There are four Veda. The Rig Veda (Veda of Hymns) Is the oldest, and consists of sacrificial hymns. Some of them offer varying accounts of the creation of primal, cosmic man. Hinduism today cannot simply be equated with Vided religion, although it developed from Vided religion.
Similarly, modern Judaism is not simply the religion of the Hebrew Bible. ) The Vided period lasted from about the fifteenth to the seventh centuries B. C. E. Classical Hinduism took shape after 600 B. C. E. Hinduism teaches that Brahmas is the Absolute, but distinguishes between Nirvana Brahmas (Brahmas without qualities) and Sauna Brahmas (Brahmas with qualities). In the Pinheads (which date from around 800 B. C. E. ), “ Atman is Brahmas” means “ The inner self is the ultimate reality. ” The experience that Brahmas and Atman are really different is based on Maya.
The conscious self is the Java, which is the illusory elf; the real self is the atman. Each caste (Verna/color) has specific duties related to it. There are four main castes: ; brahmas (Brahmins)-?? scholar ashtray-?? warrior/ruler vista-?? farmer/businessman shudder-?? laborer (serves the other three) The Brahmins, or priestly, caste is the highest in Hinduism. The three highest castes in Hinduism are called twice-born. A twice-born Hindu is one who has received initiation rites, including reception of the sacred thread, and who may engage in vided study.
Only the twice-born are permitted to study the Veda; the shudder, or borer, caste is not permitted to hear the Veda, since shudders are not regarded as full Aryans. The untouchables are outcasts. Gandhi called the untouchables the haring (children of God). Intractability has been legally abolished in modern India. The four stages (stations, ashrams) of life in Hinduism are 1. Student 2. Householder 3. Hermit 4. Renunciation (Assassin) Morality, wealth, pleasure, and mimosa (release or liberation) are all acceptable goals for Hindus to pursue. The ultimate goal in Hinduism is not reincarnation into a higher caste, but union with Brahmas.
The Hindu goal is release (mimosa) from the heel of rebirth (samara) altogether, by release from karma (action). In Hinduism, karma is more central than belief in reincarnation. Karma and samara are purely automatic. Karma is part of the natural order, and can be controlled. In popular terms, the law of karma states that we reap what we sow. The Inhabitant, the world’s longest poem, is also an epic about the legendary war between the Pandas and the Karakas. The Baghdad-Gait is the most famous portion of this poem. The Baghdad-Gait portrays a conversation between Aragua, who is a warrior, and Krishna, an avatar of the god Vishnu.
The central character manifesting the divine in the Baghdad-Gait is Krishna. The Baghdad-Gait portrays a conversation between Aragua, who is a warrior, and Krishna. The central character The Baghdad-Gait teaches that anyone can gain release from karma by acting without attachment to the outcome of one’s action. Karma is action, but to be is to act (3: 5). Not to act is still to act, and so inaction leaves one subject to the law of karma. Not inaction, but detachment from the fruits of action brings release from the law of karma. Karma is accrued from acting unnaturally.
Whatever happens naturally upends upon what body we have, but the body is not truly ours. The proper detachment can occur when I simply do what presents itself to be done, or do what is my nature (duty) to do, as lightning flashes. The Tritium, or three main gods of Hinduism, are Brahmas Vishnu Shiva In Hinduism, Brahmas is a creator god, but he has no cult. Most Hindus offer their devotion either to Vishnu (Visitations), or to Shiva (Cavities), or to Shasta, the divine feminine. Worship. Shasta is worshipped in the form of a goddess, such as Durra or Kali. Shasta worship can also be nature. Avatars of Vishnu are Ram and Krishna.
The Ingram and yon are symbols of Shiva. Shiva is the father of Ganges. The cow has been revered by Hindus since Aryan times, when nomadic herdsmen depended on it for milk, meat, butter, yogurt, and hides for clothing and shelter. Krishna is portrayed as a cowherd in the Puritan. The Laws of Mann forbid the slaughtering of cows. Cows have also become a symbol of motherhood. A Hindus worship customarily begins at daybreak and includes bathing, marking the body, and reciting a hymn to the sun. When these actions are completed, one proceeds to the household shrine, where the man of the house functions as priest.
Household worship is central, and is led by the male head of the household. Some Hindus never go to the temples. The image of the god is bathed and offered water and food prepared by the woman of the house. Few Hindus have reservations about idols. Married Hindu women generally wear a red bind’, made of herbal powders, on the forehead to protect the spiritual eye. For some women the bind is simply a cosmetic device that can change color with a change of clothes. Dalai (Divalent) is celebrated in October/November. Meaning “ Row of Lights,” it celebrates the return of Ram following his victory over Raven.
Celebrants exchange gifts and sweets. Hold is a north Indian festival celebrated in February/March. It too is based on a mythological story. On this occasion, too, people exchange gifts and sweets. On the day following Hold, celebrants throw colored water and powder on each other. Several other regional festivals occur throughout the year. Regular patterns for pilgrimages are also observed. Although Gandhi was a Hindu, he had contact with Gains, and owed his commitment to non-violence in part to them. He was also influenced by Jesus, Tolstoy, and Theosophy. Gandhi read the Baghdad-Gait allegorically.
Gandhi vigorously opposed the caste system, and especially the notion of intractability. He called the untouchables harridans, which means children of God. Intractability is no longer recognized in law in India. Because Hinduism is not centrally organized, the generally. Nevertheless, Hinduism is not the state religion of India. (Until recently, however, it was the official religion of Nepal. ) JANSENISM Jansenism was founded by Mayfair (Great Hero). He was a contemporary of the Buddha, and like him, was raised in an aristocratic ashtray family but left his home to become an ascetic around the age of 30.
He experienced liberation at age 42, becoming a Jinn (conqueror). Mayfair lived in Briar and taught for 30 years. He died of self-starvation near Patina at age 72. Mayfair is held to be the twenty-fourth Trinitarian (crossing-maker or ford-finder). Gains hold that the nineteenth was a woman. Jansenism is non-Vided. Jansenism rejects the concept of a Creator of the world; it views the world as eternal and cyclical. Jansenism accepts the doctrines of karma and reincarnation. Gods and other beings are believed to exist above the earth, but they, too, are subject to karma.
The aim in Jansenism is to become a Jinn, who gains liberation room the material world, following the examples of the authoritarian. Gains regard karma as a subtle form of matter-?? a grime that clings to beings. The authoritarian cannot offer help by intervention, but they aid Gains as models. One can only attain victory by one’s own deeds, especially by practicing austerities. Jansenism regards suicide, sometimes by self-starvation, as an acceptable manner of death. The Gain principle of aims requires adherents to do no harm to any living creature.
No human or animal may be killed for any reason. Gains are taught to avoid even abusive words and thoughts. Gains are strict vegetarians. Gains maintain an animal hospital in New Delhi. Gains will often buy caged animals to free them. Jansenism holds to holism’s; even kicking a rock injures life. Thus, few Gains are farmers, since digging and plowing disturb the soil and injure the organisms living there. Gains have gravitated towards service professions. ) Gains have been successful in business in part because people know they can be trusted to be honest.
Disembark, or “ Sky-clad” Gains, wear no clothes because they have renounced all material goods, except a broom to sweep insects from one’s path and a gourd for drinking. They recognize no texts as scripture. The Disembark limit the role of women. Sheepshearers, or “ White-clad” Gains have created a canon of scriptures. They grant a larger share of equality to women, and teach that Mayfair was married. No Gain monk had traveled outside India until 1970, so non-landing Jansenism is only as old as the last century. Today, Jansenism is organized in some form in at least six countries. BUDDHISM This Triple Refuge is also known as the Three Jewels. The Buddha” (“ Awakened One”, “ Enlightened One”) was the descriptive title given to Shattered Augusta by those who embraced his teaching. Shattered Augusta was born in the foothills of Nepal, into the Ashtray caste, the son of a king of the Shaky tribe. The title “ Shamanic” means “ Sage of the Shaky. ” At age 29, the sheltered prince witnessed the Four Signs that changed his view of the world: ; an old man a sick man a corpse an ascetic As a consequence, he renounced his luxurious life and spent six years as a wandering ascetic along with five others. But asceticism did not bring him to his goal.
At age 35, he obtained enlightenment under a boded tree. The Enlightenment of Shattered occurred when he chose meditation without extreme asceticism. For the Buddha, the ultimate cause of suffering is rooted in ignorance. As an itinerant teacher, the Buddha most resembled a physician diagnosing an illness. A person ignoring matters of salvation and dwelling upon “ questions not tending toward Nirvana” is compared to a man delaying the removal of a poisoned arrow. An example of a “ question not tending toward Nirvana” would be, Whether the world is eternal. Nirvana is “ extinguishing. ” It is release from karma, described as bliss.
The Buddha first sermon was presented to his former fellow ascetics. This event is ladled “ The Turning of the Wheel of Dharma (Law),” because it introduced the Four Noble Truths: 1. Existence is suffering. 2. The cause of suffering is desire. 3. Suffering can be removed. 4. The Eightfold Path (Middle Way) removes desire. Buddhism “ Middle Path” lies between hedonism and asceticism. The Buddha last words were “ Work out your salvation with diligence. ” The doctrine of anta (mantra) teaches that there is no atman, no permanent Self. An individual is merely a composite of the five Kansas (heaps).
There is no Self over and above these heaps, in which these components inhere. At death, the heaps solve and enter a new combination. The doctrine of Dependent Co-origination teaches that all things arise together and depend upon one another: as there is no fire without fuel, so there is really no such thing as fuel without fire. Thus, there is no independent existence of anything, and no permanence, no Brahmas. All things are emptiness (sunbath). The Buddhist monastic order is the Sang. Traditions emphasize imitating the ascetic life of the Buddha, while Mahayanist put more emphasis on universal Buddhist enlightenment.
The three groupings of Threading scriptures are called the “ Tropical,” meaning Three Baskets. Dehydrated Buddhism shows strong interest in the previous lives of the Buddha. “ Mahayana” In Mahayana Buddhism, the Sang eventually included laypersons as well as monks. Len Mahayana Buddhism, the role of the Bodhisattva is to remain voluntarily outside of Nirvana to assist in the salvation of others. In Buddhist Tanta, the aim is to overcome desire or craving by exhausting it. In Tibetan Buddhism, there are several Lamas. Zen Buddhism emphasizes the circumventing of rational thought as a tool for attaining insight.
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A problem used by Zen monks to help reduce ordinary ways of thinking is called a “ Joan. In Zen Buddhism, a Joan may be useful in attaining a flash of insight. SCHISM The word “ Sikh” means disciple. Sikhs are disciples of Guru Nanas and his successors. Schism began in the Punjab during the sixteenth century, with the teachings of Nanas. He had been raised a Hindu, but together with his Muslim friend Amerada, he began a spiritual search that led to a direct experience of the divine. Nanas began to teach a monotheism that he believed transcended Hinduism and Islam.
The Sikh scriptures are called the Aid Grant, or Guru Grant Sahib’s. Schism was originally led by a succession often gurus. Afterward, the Guru Grant Sahib’s was regarded as the last guru, so that today the only guru of Schism is Guru Grant Sahib’s. The central shrine of Schism is the Golden Temple, situated in an artificial lake in Amorists, India. Like Muslims, Sikhs believe in one God and avoid images of God. Like Hindus, they believe in karma and reincarnation. Sikh men who Join the salsa, the military order, adopt the last name Sings (lion), wear turbans, and do not cut their hair.
ZOROASTRIAN Zoroastrian is more accurately called Misaims, though Zoroastrian themselves refer to it simply as The Good Religion. Caruthers (in Greek, Zoroaster), the founder of Zoroastrian, was an Iranian who broke with the traditional Iranian-Aryan beliefs. Those beliefs were similar to those of the Vided religion, including animal sacrifice at fire altars, use of a sacred beverage, and a hereditary priesthood. The ancient Iranians were a cattle culture; once nomadic, it more recently had become pastoral. Caruthers was active in the area of modern Iran and Afghanistan in the seventh century B. C. E. Some scholars place him about four centuries earlier. ) His illumination occurred when he was 30 years old. Zoroastrian is classified, therefore, as a revealed faith. Caruthers and his followers encountered resistance until King Visitants granted him an audience. Caruthers answered all the challenges from the kings priests and wise men. Consequently, the king embraced Chartreuse’s religion and commended it to his Zoroastrian became more dualistic. The one God, for Caruthers, is Aura Mazda (Ramrod), who is good. He is opposed, however, by the evil Airman. Caruthers saw history as a contest between good and evil.
Caruthers retained the fire altar as a symbol of divine goodness, but rejected animal sacrifices. The Ghats, part of the Vista, record Chartreuse’s questions to Aura Mazda and the answers he received. Cyrus II (: the Great”), a tolerant ruler, promoted Zoroastrian, though possibly was not a Zoroastrian himself-?? although his successors were. Daring conquered the Babylonians, thus extending the reach of Zoroastrian. Although Caruthers had taught a monotheistic faith, in later times it became dualistic, taking the form of Suzerains for a while, with two supreme beings: one good and the other evil.
After the Battle of al-Shadily in 651 C. E. In which the Muslims defeated the Persian Euler, Persia (Iran) became overwhelmingly Islamic. Many Zoroastrian fled to India for toleration in the seventh century C. E. And found it in Gujarat and Bombay (Iambi), where they became known as Pareses. In return for toleration, they promised not to proselytize. Today it is all but impossible to Join Zoroastrian from the outside, and members may only marry other Zoroastrian or be cut off from the religion. In India, the Pareses are known to be business-saws but scrupulously honest. Today it is a remnant religion.
Its only great center is in Iambi (Bombay), India, although many Zoroastrian live in the U. S. And a pocket of Zoroastrian remain in Iran. American Zoroastrian are divided over the need to continue endogamy and the ban on conversion. The “ Good Religion” wages a constant battle against evil. It consists of ; Good thoughts Good words-?? telling the truth and dealing honestly Good deeds-?? tilling of farmland, kindness to animals The central festival is Narrow, a spring new-year festival. Cremation of the dead is believed to contaminate the element of fire, and burial to contaminate earth and water.
Therefore, the dead are disposed of in towers of lenience to avoid the horror of contamination. The souls of the dead must cross the Cantina Bridge to be Judged. Zoroastrian was probably the first religion to have an apocalyptic view of the end of time. It teaches the resurrection of the dead, the final Judgment, and the purification of the earth by fire. Zoroastrian affected the development of all three Abraham religions. The Jews were exposed to Zoroastrian beliefs when many lived under Persian rule. Zoroastrian contributed to beliefs about the Messiah, the resurrection of the dead, heaven and hell, angels, and Satan.