Andrea Biancuzzo Early Ed Spring12 and 13 High Scope cont. High/Scope (Cognitively Oriented) Theory: The High Scope earlychildhoodeducationapproach, used in preschools, kindergarten, and childcare, or in elementary school settings. The High Scope approach is a branch off of the Cognitively Oriented Curriculum, which was developed under theleadershipof David Weikart at the High Scope Foundation in Ypsilanti, Michigan in the early 1960’s (Essa, 2007). Thephilosophybehind High Scope is based onchild developmenttheory and research, originally drawing on the work of theorists such as Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, and John Dewey.
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A key part of the High Scope approach is that the development revolves around certain activities that can help children grasp certain cognitive concepts. As stated in our book “ the cognitively oriented model is based on the premise that children are active learners who construct their own knowledge from meaningful experiences” (Essa, 2007, p. 146). One main reason High Scopes theory is so hands on. In others words High Scope’s educational approach emphasizes active/hands on learning. Active learning means students have nonstop, hands-on experiences with people, objects/materials, events, and ideas.
Children’s interests and choices are at the heart of High Scope programs. They build their own knowledge through interactions with the world and the people around them. Children take the first step in the learning process by making choices and following through on their plans and decisions. Teachers, caregivers, and parents offer physical, emotional, andacademicsupport. In an active learning setting, adults expand children’s thinking abilities with diverse materials and nurturing interactions.
High Scopes approach was built for children to gain knowledge with independence, responsibility, and confident. High Scope’s approach allows children to become ready for school and ready for life. Environment: The classroom environment in which the children are surrounded by each and every day is one of the most crucial parts of the High Scope Model. The classroom is where the children spend their entire day, if the room wasn’t set up with the child’s emotional and physical development in mind the High Scope Model would not work accordingly.
In the High Scope environment there must be areas of the room that are divided up into different sections that allow the children to engage in different types of play; each area serves a different purpose in the area of development. There are a few characteristics in the High Scope environment that are a necessity, these being: a welcoming room for the children, it must also provide enough materials for all of the children, it must encourage different types of play, and last but not least the room should provide materials that reflect the diversity of children’sfamilylives (High Scope, 2012).
Some of the areas that you can typically find in a High Scope classroom are; block area, house area, arts and crafts area, sand/water area, reading area, and outdoor area (High Scope, 2012). All of these areas have a great significance on the growth and development on the child, without these areas the child would be lacking in one or more areas of development which could ultimately be detrimental to his or her healthy growth and or development. Teacher(s): AMBER’S SECTION Missing Student(s): High/Scope takes the learning process beyond traditional academic subjects by applying methods that promote independence, curiosity, decision making, cooperation, persistence, creativity, and problem solving in young children”(HighScope, p. 63). The students in the High/ Scope Approach learn six major content areas in their first 3 years at a school with this curriculum. Those six major content areas would be, approaches to learning, social and emotional development, physical development andhealth, communication, language and literacy, cognitive development, and lastly creative arts.
As the children progress and enter Preschool they add three more content areas to their curriculum and those areas would be inmathematics, science and technology, and social studies. During Preschool a High/Scope curriculum setting, they are trying to build school readiness, so the children can move on and continue their growing education (http://www. highscope. org/Content. asp? ContentId= 63). The students in a High/Scope classroom are actively learning alongside their teachers.
The students in a High/ Scope classroom pick what they want to learn that day and they are given time to do it and they report back to the class what they have learned and why it is important. This gives each child the individuality to work at their own pace and not be rushed if something is harder for them than for other students. This way the student’s feel that they are all equally important and they see that no one student is getting a particular amount of attention. Daily Schedule: In a High/ Scope school setting consistency is the key to readiness.
Consistency in the classroom helps the children gain a much stronger understanding of time. In the classroom the day would be started with a morning greeting, following this morning greeting would be planning time, which is when the teacher walks around the class and asks the students to pick out something that they want to work on throughout their work time. The teacher will record what each child is working on and will keep track of when they finish and how long it took them, along with how much assistance they needed for that specific task. The work time takes up a rather large portion of the day and it is then followed by recall time.
Recall time is when the class comes together as a whole and each child talk about what they have worked on for the day as well as what they have learned. These three concepts, planning time, work time, and recall time, are known together as the plan-do-review cycle. This is the main and the most important part of the day in a High/Scope classroom. Other parts of the day that aren’t as important yet are still important would be small group time, large group time, cleanup, meals, as well as naps depending on which setting you are in (Essa 2007).
A possible High/ Scope Approach daily schedule could look as followed: 8: 00 to 8: 15| Arrival of students | This time would be spend putting their jackets away and backpacks and getting their desks ready for the day| 8: 15 to 8: 20| Transition to school work| This time would be spent talking about their weekend or the day before, what they did and letting them talk to each other. | This time would be known as the plan-do-review cycle: 8: 20 to 8: 35| Planning time| This time would be spent by each child picking out what they want to work on during work time (10 to 15 minutes). 8: 35 to 9: 25| Work time| This time would be spent with the children working on their materials while the teacher goes around and provides assistance if needed (45 to 60 minutes). | 9: 25 to 9: 40| Recall time| This time would be spent reviewing and going over what each child has done during work time (10 to 15 minutes). | Then the students would go back to working together or in small groups: 9: 40 to10: 00| Small group(s)| This time would be spent with children in small groups working in centers and work with the teacher (roughly 20 minutes). 10: 00 to 10: 45| Outside play| This time would be spent with the children exploring the outside, and exerting energy (45 minutes). | Then the students will participate in another plan-do-review cycle: 10: 45 to 11: 00| Planning time| This time would be spent by each child picking out what they want to work on during work time (10 to 15 minutes). | 11: 00 to 11: 50| Work time| This time would be spent with the children working on their materials while the teacher goes around and provides assistance if needed (45 to 60 minutes). 11: 50 to 12: 05| Recall time| This time would be spent reviewing and going over what each child has done during work time (10 to 15 minutes). | Then the children will have time to eat and rest up a bit: 12: 05 to 12: 50| Lunch time| This time would be spent setting up and the distribution of lunch, and the children eating (45 minutes). | 12: 50 to 1: 00| Rest time | This time would be spent resting and relaxing after lunch, also used as a bathroom break (10 minutes). | : 00 to 1: 20| Large group time| This time would be spent with the whole class sitting at the rug while the teacher teaches a lesson or reads a book aloud to the class (20 minutes). | 1: 20 to 2: 05| Outside play| This time would be spent with the children exploring the outside, and exerting energy (45 minutes). | 2: 05 to 2: 15| Student dismissal| This time would be spent getting their backpacks ready and waiting for their buddies to pick them up and take them to their bus (10 minutes). | 2: 15 to 2: 55| Team planning| This time would be spent creating a lesson plan for the next day and what we lan to teach within the week (40 minutes). | Parent Involvement: As educators it is important to involve parents with the education of their children. Therefore parent involvement is one of High Scopes goal as it is for any approach. High/Scope provides parents with multiple opportunities to become involved in their child’s program, whether they volunteer in the classroom, serve on policy-making and/or advisory committees, contribute to a parent newsletter, or attend meetings and workshops. As a group we designed a parent’s monthly newsletter and letter share activity.
Our newsletter informed parents of our monthly classroom actives, upcoming book fair, sight words, our letter share day, and nights for parent activity night. We also made a parent flyer for Flip It. Our Flip It activity is a training session offering the flip it approaches to challenging behavior. Parents are encouraged to participate in program activities with children or trainings offered by the teachers. Tostressthe importance of parent involvement, parents are often invited or encouraged to participate in a variety of activities with children. Evaluation of the Model:
The High/ Scope Approach has been portrayed in many different ways. There is controversy between whether this approach works or if it doesn’t work. There is also debate about whether this approach works because it doesn’t contain excess materials to make the classroom work. Many points are in the air about this, and there is much research that either backs this information up or tears it down. In the article The HighScope Model of Early Childhood Education, the author states that this specific approach doesn’t need one to go out and buy specific materials to make the classroom work, as in other approaches like a Montessoriclassroom.
This model is a prime example of being culturally and developmentally appropriate practice in this field of education. In the article High/Scope program briefing paper, the author talks and compares this approach with the EPPE and the Galinsky analysis that they came up with. The EPPE and the Galinsky analysis states “ High/Scope evidences all of the elements of the quality early childhood programs that have been identified. (Cahir, p. 8)” This is important because they are stating that this program is a well round and highly educational approach.
The program that the High/ Scope Approach was originally intended for has proven that there is a decrease in the amount of crimes, that have become of the students that had this curriculum. As stated in the article The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study Through Age 40, the author states “ the Perry Preschool program played a significant role in reducing overall arrests and arrests for violent crimes as well as property and drug crimes and subsequent prison or jail sentences over study participants’ lifetimes up to age 40. (Schweinhart, p. )” I found this to be very interesting because I did not find other approaches to having any information like this. There are six core standards. Each standard describes in a few sentences what well-prepared teachers should know and be able to do. It is important to note, that the standard is not just that candidates know something “ about” child development and learning, the expectations are more specific and complex than that. A seventh programmatic standard describes requirements for early childhood field experience and clinical practice.
The following, illustrate how the HighScope approach meets NAEYC requirements for curriculum standards through 7 standards. For the purpose of this assignment we well recognize the following: Standard one, Promoting Child Development and learning, standard two, Building Family and Community Relationships, standard three, Observing, Documenting, and Assessing to Support Young Children and Families, standard four, Using Developmentally Effective Approaches, standard five, Using Content Knowledge to Build Meaningful Curriculum, and finally standard six, becoming a Professional.
Standard One PROMOTING CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING- Teachers prepared in early childhood degree programs are grounded in a child development knowledge base. They use their understanding of young children’s characteristics and needs, and of multiple interacting influences on children’s development and learning, to create environments that are healthy, respectful, supportive, and challenging for each child. NAEYC) The High Scope model meets the need of standard one by developing hands on learning and by creating. The High Scope curriculum also guides teachers to plan for children’s engagement in play (including dramatic play and blocks) that is integrated into classroom topics of study. Standard two BUILDING FAMILY AND COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIPS -Teachers prepared in early childhood degree programs understand that successful early childhood education depends upon partnerships with children’s families and communities.
They know about, understand, and value the importance and complex characteristics of children’s families and communities. They use this understanding to create respectful, reciprocal relationships that support and empower families, and to involve all families in their children’s development and learning. (NAEYC) High Scope suggests as educators it is important to involve parents with the education of their children. Therefore parent involvement is one of High Scopes goal as it is for any approach.
High/Scope provides parents with multiple opportunities to become involved in their child’s program, whether they volunteer in the classroom, serve on policy-making and/or advisory committees, contribute to a parent newsletter, or attend meetings and workshops. Standard three OBSERVING, DOCUMENTING, AND ASSESSING TO SUPPORT YOUNG CHILDREN AND FAMILIES – Teachers prepared in early childhood degree programs understand that childobservation, documentation, and other forms of assessment are central to the practice of all early childhood professionals.
They know about and understand thegoals, benefits, and uses of assessment. They know about and use systematic observations, documentation, and other effective assessment strategies in a responsible way, in partnership with families and other professionals, to positively influence the development of every child. (NAEYC) The High Scope The curriculum guides teachers to integrate assessment information with curriculum goals to support individualized learning. A staff member regularly uses a child observation measure of proven reliability and validity to assess children’s developmental progress.
High Scope also supports documentation as an assessment. Standard four USING DEVELOPMENTALLY EFFECTIVE APPROACHES- Teachers prepared in early childhood degree programs understand that teaching and learning with young children is a complex enterprise, and its details vary depending on children’s ages, characteristics, and the settings within which teaching and learning occur. They understand and use positive relationships and supportive interactions as the foundation for their work with young children and families. Candidates know, understand, and use a wide array of evelopmentally appropriate approaches, instructional strategies, and tools to connect with children and families and positively influence each child’s development and learning. (NAEYC) According the High Scope well-prepared early childhood teachers make firm use of various learning formats based on their understanding of children as individuals and as part of a group, and on alignment with important educational and developmental goals. A flexible, research-based repertoire of teaching/learning approaches to promote young children’s development.
This would include making the most of the environment, schedule and routines. High Scope is huge on daily schedule and routines. In a High/ Scope school setting consistency is the key to readiness. Consistency in the classroom helps the children gain a much stronger understanding of time. In the classroom the day would be started with a morning greeting, following this morning greeting would be planning time, which is when the teacher walks around the class and asks the students to pick out something that they want to work on throughout their work time.
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Standard five USING CONTENT KNOWLEDGE TO BUILD MEANINGFUL CURRICULUM – Teachers prepared in early childhood degree programs use their knowledge of academic disciplines to design, implement, and evaluate experiences that promote positive development and learning for each and every young child. Candidates understand the importance of developmental domains and academic (or content) disciplines in early childhood curriculum. They know the essential concepts, inquiry tools, and structure of content areas, including academic subjects, and can identify resources to deepen their understanding.
Candidates use their own knowledge and other resources to design, implement, and evaluate meaningful, challenging curriculum that promotes comprehensive developmental and learning outcomes for every young child. (NAEYC) This program illustrates the plan-do-review process, a critical and unique part of the HighScope Curriculum that builds on children’s interests and intrinsicmotivation. During plan-do-review, children learn to take initiative, solve problems, work with others, and accomplish their goals.
In doing so, children see that they can make things happen and that their choices and ideas are respected. This helps them develop self-confidence and a sense of control and independence. High Scope also implemented discipline areas in learning goals, art andmusic, etc. Standard six BECOMING A PROFESSIONAL- Teachers prepared in early childhood degree programs identify and conduct themselves as members of the early childhood profession. They know and use ethical guidelines and other professional standards related to early childhood practice.
They are continuous, collaborative learners who demonstrate knowledgeable, reflective and critical perspectives on their work, making informed decisions that integrate knowledge from a variety of sources. They are informed advocates for sound educational practices and policies. (NAEYC) Teachers are responsible for planning lessons that help students learn through hands-on activities and experiences. The teacher in a high scope classroom should be encouraging adult to child interaction as well as facilitating learning through the students’ exploration.
For example, sitting down with children at the block area and encouraging children to find out what happens when the stack gets too high, or what happens when you put a small block on the bottom and large on the top. Teachers should develop lessons that interest the students that way students are motivated to explore and learn in that particuluar setting In conclusion, The High Scope curriculum focuses on the ability of children to actively learn. Students are encourgaed to learn by engaging in hands-on experiences as well as interacting with adults, other children, materials, and events.
Students are also at the center of planning. Teachers plan activities based on student interest and there is a schedule of the day so students know what to anticipate. Annotated Bibliography/References: Schweinhart, L. (2010). The highscope model of early childhood education. HighScope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti, Michigan 1-19. This article gives you a great detailed background of the High/ Scope Approach, which I found very helpful when looking for research. This article also talks about the role of teachers, the daily routine, as well as the role of parents and the community.
I would highly recommend this article for use. Weikart, D. (2010). The youth program quality intervention (YPQI) study. Retrieved from http://www. cypq. org/products_and_services/research This article gives one a better understanding of the YPQI program and how it is related to the High/ Scope approach that we are talking about. This isn’t one that I would highly recommend but it is not bad. Stone, R. (1997-2012). High/scope: educating children for life. Retrieved from http://www. communityplaythings. co. uk/resources/articles/high-scope. tml This website was very interesting because it is based off of a classroom that follows the High/ Scope Approach to education. You could see a lot of information and how it personally worked for them. I think this is a great website and I would recommend it. Cahir, p. (2008). High/scope program briefing paper. Early Childhood Australia INC, 1-15. I would recommend this paper because it is very interesting because it is from Australia, and it was very interesting to see how different their educational approach would be from ours and it isn’t that different.
Schweinhart, L. (n. d). The high/scope perry preschool study through age 40. High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, 1-21. I found this article to be very useful, the information and how it was laid out made it very easy to maneuver. I would highly recommend this article. This information that is contained in this article will help your opinion for this particular approach. http://www. highscope. org/ This was by far the most helpful resource for this paper, this website has a ton of information in all the different areas.
It was very easy to navigate and I would highly recommend the use of this site. Essa, E. (2007). Introduction to early childhood education, annotated student’s edition, sixith edition. University of Nevada, Reno : Wadsworth Cengage Learning. This book was very help in finding information on this approach. It also had information to compare and contrast all the other approaches and it was easy to find all that needed to be looked at. I would highly recommend using this book as well. www. NAEYC. org Used for standards 1-7 information