Free current health disparities essay example

According to World Health Organization, health disparities, refers to, “ population-specific differences in the presence of disease, health outcomes, quality of health care and access to health care services that exist across racial and ethnic groups.” The existing health disparities provide insight to the inefficiencies encountered within the health system leading to gratuitous costs. Studies indicate that eliminating the health disparities in minorities may require the allocation of billions of money. The insufficient care to access, poverty, violence, poor quality of care, and individual behaviors are among the factors results to racial, ethnic and social economic disparities. The groups that are affected mostly by the disparities include racial and ethnic minority groups, the disabled, and the low-income individuals. Subsequently, people in urban and rural areas may be underserved in the health care system, thus experiencing health disparities. In the United States, frantic efforts have proved to be futile as health disparities continue to persist. Health indicators that determine the level of disparities include infant mortality, prevalence of chronic disease, life expectancy, and insurance coverage. For instance, the infant mortality rates for black women are 1. 5-3 times higher than the whites. Furthermore, Cancer rates are higher in African-American than in Hispanic women and the Whites. Moreover, Hispanics are 1. 5 times higher to acquire diabetes than the Whites are.
The incidence of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) and death rates is higher in the elderly, the male, and the non-Hispanic populations. Most groups have indicated a rate of 38. 6 cases in a population of 100, 000 and 14. 5 CRC death rates per 100, 000 populations. The high incidence and prevalence of the disease prompted to introduction of primary prevention, detection and treatment tom curb the condition. Surprisingly, the screening of the aged population is determined by the race and demographic characteristics. Over the years, there have never been equality, fairness, and justice in the screening, prevention, and treatment. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), the highest prevalence of CRC is among the non-Hispanic whites, followed narrowly by the non-Hispanic Blacks. In addition, health insurance coverage is an indicator for health disparities. The uninsured rates are different amongst different demographic and socioeconomic groups. The males are most uninsured (24. 1%) compared to the females (18. 8%). The young adults have a 28. 5% uninsured rates compared to the aged (15. 5%). Based on ethnicity, the non-Hispanics Blacks are most uninsured (41%) compared to the non-Hispanic Blacks (16. 2%). In 2010, nearly half of the uninsured adults were the non-Hispanic whites.
Various factors affect the socioeconomic position of a person and group in the society also influence the ability to access health care. These socioeconomic conditions include education and income, access to health food retailers and unemployment in the United States. A study conducted on the CDC Health disparities and inequality in United States indicated that the socioeconomic disparities has been influencing health inequalities and disparities, and only little evidence of improvement can be obtained. The results indicated that young ethnic/racial, poor adults and foreign-born have higher chances of being vulnerable to quality health because of disparities in education attainment.
Education attainment and income shed light to the material and psychosocial resources that restrict individual against exposure to health risks in both adult and early life. People with low level of income end education have higher chances to experience increased rates of morbidity, mortality, health risks, and decreased access to quality health care. Therefore, people who exhibit access to poor health care are associated with the lowest levels of income and education attainment.
Another social factor that has contributed to health disparities and inequalities in the United States is the accessibility of healthy foods such as vegetables and fruits. According to a study conducted in 2011 in the United States, about 30 percent of the population indicated that they have limited access to at least one healthier food retailer. The most influencing factor for the result was due to the disparities connected with urbanization, income, and education. For instance, people living in areas mostly populated by non-Hispanic whites and senior indicates poor result for accessibility to the health care. As a result, disparities in access to healthier food contribute significantly to the health disparities and inequalities. Therefore, government is required to intervene in terms of increasing healthier food stores into affected areas, and upgrade facilities that enhance stoking of all kinds of vegetables and fruits. In addition, people need to be educated on important of healthier foods.
The study also indicated that there is a positive correlation between unemployment and mental and physical health. People who are prone to unemployment are subjected to lack of health insurance, higher illness rates, increased risk to death, and lack of access to quality healthcare. According to the study, unemployed people indicated that they were less likely to report their health condition as excellent or satisfactory compared to the employed people. For instance, 49. 2 percent of unemployed people showed satisfaction of their health conditions compared to 62. 7 percent of employed people.
United States civilian workforce involves an estimation of 155 million workers. The research conducted indicated that many U. S. workers suffer and experience work-related illness and injuries. Nonfatal workplace injuries and illnesses are estimated to cost the U. S. economy roughly $200 billion every year. The findings proved that identifying disparities in work-related injury and illness rates could help public health authorities focus prevention efforts, since work-related disparities are related with social disadvantages. Therefore, a complete program to advance health equity can comprise improving workplace safety and health since work-related illness and injuries are preventable.
The work-related Safety and Health Act gives equal protection to all workers, regardless of ethnicity, immigrant, or race status. Advancing a culture in which work-related safety and health is well known and valued as an important constituent of economic growth and prosperity can play an important role in promoting health equity. Fatal Work-Related Injuries, the findings provide that 12-13 workers die from injuries sustained at work in United States. Foreigner born workers are in risk due to the work they do. About 10% of injury-related mortalities at work site include homicides that regularly occur during a robbery.
Traffic-related air pollution is a key factor that contributes to unhealthy ambient air quality, mainly in urban areas with high traffic capacity. The findings proved that about 4% of the total American population lives in the 150 meters radius of the major highways. Therefore, suggest increase exposure of traffic-related air pollution and raises the risk for adverse health results. The report concluded that the primary prevention plans to reduce traffic emissions comprise improving access to other transportation means. For instance, rideshare programs, cycling, walking, and transit.

Work cited

Center For Disease Control and Prevention. ” CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report — United States, 2013.” Morbidity and mortality weekly report 62. 3 (2013): n. pag. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.
Cohen, Jennifer A. Challenges and Successes in Reducing Health Disparities: Workshop Summary. Washington, D. C: National Academies Press, 2008. Print.
National conference of state legislatures. ” Health Disparities Overview.” Legislative News, Studies and Analysis | National Conference of State Legislatures. N. p., 23 Jan. 2014. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.