Example of research paper on communication print media

A Historical and contemporary role of the print media industry

Print media and The Feminist Movement

The relationship between mass media and feminism has been both positive and negative. At the beginning of the first wave of feminist movement in the early part of the 19th, women were stepped in a patriarchal society that controlled all key social positions including exiting media. From the early clamor for voting rights to the ongoing process of reexamination of the role of women is society, the media has played a pivotal role in advancing the feminist course.

Betty Freidan published the first notable book on feminism in 1963. The book titled The Feminine Mystique marked the beginning of a love and hate relationship between the feminism and the media. Such books and numerous newspaper articles that covered the spirited campaigns by the feminist activists opened the eyes of many women to their issues. At the same time, the gimmicks mounted by the women during their campaigns were painted in bad light by the same media. Soon enough, the same women who had become synonymous with progress were labeled as bizarre spectacles.

The media slowly found a less controversial approach to championing for the rights of women. Radical activities such as the burning of brassieres in public were shunned. In its place, the media designed a conventional image of the modern woman, which discouraged many from labeling themselves as feminists (Joint, 2009).

The Historical Role of Print Media in Feminism

Progress for any given cause is directly related to the power and influence wielded by the individuals behind it. The media is a formidable source of power. It grants the opportunity to disseminate information to a large number of people. The feminist movement has had to contend with the fact that most mainstream media is male dominated. The most available form of media available to feminist is the print media. Numerous books and articles were written by feminist authors in both fiction and non- fiction genres.

During the 1950, the feminist movement had no ownership of media houses. There were virtually no journalists sympathetic to the movement. The male dominated media presented the feminist movement as a mistaken attempt to upset the “ natural” order subordinated women to men. The media propagated a psychological attack on the dissenting views by making women believe that they belonged to the house and could not become doctors or any other male dominated professions.

At the end of the decade, women began to create their own media. In 1960, women created their own means of communication through which they presented firsthand information on their grievances. They also used journals, newspapers, and magazines to correct the psychological theory and other misconceptions.

Women are now able to tell their stories and present their struggles freely. In recent times, the feminist movement has evolved into a fight for gender issues and sexuality, which transcend geographical boundaries. The rights of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals are part of the pertinent issues covered by modern day feminists.

The Role of Print Media from the 1800s to date.

As stated earlier, the media has played a pivotal role in the progress of the feminist agenda. The same media has also criticized and ridiculed the same movement by creating long lasting images that stand to date. The word feminism still has many negative connotations. Many young women would rather not be identified as feminists because of the portrayal of feminism as a movement of women who are at war with men.

The media has drastically changed from what it was in the 1800s and 1900s. During this period, the authorities and the aristocracy controlled newspapers. The public only has to know what the government allowed. Most journals and books were written for academic or official purposes. Circulation was also limited by logistical issues such as poor transportation and geographical challenges.

Print media is currently well developed. From the days when women had no access or control of media outlets, the feminist movement has come a long way. Magazines, books, newspapers, academic papers, and other publications are still used to further gender issues. The role of print media has changed from a purely informatory one to that of the custodian of the truth. The internet together with millions of pages of printed material holds all information regarding feminism.

The influence of new technology on the print media industry

Technological Development and Print Media

Technological advancement has gone hand in hand with the growth and development of the print media industry. The traditional book, newspaper, and magazine can now be accessed online without having to purchase an actual copy. Presently all publications worth nothing have an online version to complement the published copies. Wireless communication devices and handheld devices such as telephones and tablets can be used to read online material and digital copies of printed publications. The Kindle developed by Amazon can hold thousands of books in one tablet. This saves on space and the cost of buying books for a library (Sukovic, 2009). Computers have replaced typewriters, which were synonymous with journalism and writing. Computer programs add on such as printers are used to create, edit, save, and reproduce all forms of print media.

These devices have made printed materials widely available to readers. The internet has created a new market of online readers who are willing to buy digital articles, newspapers, and books. These items are priced significantly lower than the hard copies. Newspaper companies and publishing houses are facing an imminent threat of extinction. Sales have hit a historical low and many publications are closing down or diversifying.

Incorporation of New Technology to Print Media

Computers have replaced typewriters in the production printed material. The process of publication is fully automated. The quality of publications has tremendously improved. Newspapers, books, and magazines are printed on quality paper with batter layout and color schemes. Most media companies have an online segment, which is in charge of online content. Amazon. com and Google books have become respectable sites where publishers are willing to sell their books (Sukovic, 2009). This shift to digital media has been successful due to its cost efficiency. The overall production costs are lower compared to physical printing. The coverage is also wider and the companies can easily track their readership in real time.

Consumer Reaction to Technological changes

The shift toward digital content has been occasioned by changing consumer preferences. The internet created a platform on which individuals could access information at the touch of a button often at no cost. The younger generation has embraced these new changes gladly. Computers and other gadgetry are part of the curriculum in school. Children are introduced to technology early. They embrace digital media more readily than they do books and magazines. The older generation is slow to adopt these changes because they grew up reading physical books and other publications. This generation also has difficulty understanding and operating gadgets that support digital content such as computers and tablets. Consumer reaction to technology therefore varies across the generational divide with the youth being more accepting than the older generation.

Major publications in the print media industry

How many total publications are sold annually in each print media industry?

3. 1 billion (Balle, 2012).

E-books 3. 7 Billion

200, 750 billion
165 billion

What are the major ownership chains in each print media industry?

Reed Elsevier
Thomson Reuters
McGraw-Hill Education
News Corporation
Gannet Company
The New York Times Company
Time Inc.
Time Warner Company
Time Warner Company
List three major publications in each print media industry.

Harry Porter
Hunger Games
The Da Vinci Code
The wall street journal
USA today
The New York Times
Sports Illustrated
For each of the three major publications you listed, identify the target audience.

Harry Porter targets fiction lovers both adults and young,
Hunger games targets adults aged 16 and above
The Da Vinci Code targets atheists and church critics

Wall street journal is for business executives and potential investors.
USA today and NYT target the general educated adult population
Target audience of People Magazine is mostly women and teens.
Target audience of Sports Illustrated is anyone interested in sports
Target audience of Time Magazine is the middle aged working class men and women
For each of the three major publications you listed, describe the unique writing style. What makes each publication stand out in the marketplace?

Harry Porter uses imagination, captivation, and a little fiction. Equally, the idea of producing the books in a series makes the readers to wait for the next volume

Hunger games speculative fiction, adventure, Science fictions, and adult literature

The Dance Vinci Code applies controversy to capture the attention of the audience through mystery
The Wall Street Journal only writes about money, finance, and investment.
USA Today is different in that it violates most design writing rules making its message simple and clear to understand.
New York Times is unique in that it uses short sentences and very playful language

People Magazine is unique because it only writes about celebrities.
Sports Illustrated is unique since it only writes about sporting activities and other topics that are related.
Time Magazine unique writing style is its catchy headlines that raise debates.
For each of the three major publications you listed, describe the publishing trends.
How is each publication changing in response to today’s cultural, political, or technological climate?

Harry Porter uses wizards, witches, and vampires. Based on pressures of market, Harry Porter-Twilight might be the next series.
Hunger games is a new series and uses fantasy. This trend combines a whole lot of aspects. E-books are being produced to meet market demands.

The Da Vinci Code is a classic and controversy is its order

Wall Street Journal major publishing trends are book review and peer reviews. It also has online publication with the changing times.

USA Today publishing trend is print on demand. People can also comment online due to changes in technology.

New York Times has blog writers who supplement on the print writing. This has happened due to the changes in technology as well as culture.

People Magazine publishing trend is gossip and information of the trending celebrities. They are changing by providing online publication for the online community.

Sports Illustrated Magazine publishing trend is writing about sports.

Time Magazine publishing trend is writing about the trending careers and lifestyle changes in the society. It has an online website.


Balle, L. (2012). Publishing Facts. Retrieved from
http://www. ehow. com/about_4740870_publishing-facts. html

Joint, N. (2009). Never Mind the Web: Here Comes the Book. Library Review, 58(9): 693
– 694
Sukovic, S. (2009). References to e-texts in academic publications. Journal of
Documentation, 65 (6): 997 – 1015