Ethics and law

This assignment focuses on Ethics and Law forNursingand Social work which would be based on aCase Study. The case study which I have chosen is about Blood Transfusion. Nowadays Ethics and Law brings a huge impact on Nursing. The key of ethical principles underpins thehealthcare policies and care practices. The meaning of ethics is something which the individuals performs everyday life. The other word for ethics would beethical dilemma. Most of the time due to the intense nature of the work nurses may come across with variety of ethical dilemmas throughtout their courses and their professional careers.

As a nurse the most important to carefully handle and maintain the ethical dilemmas. Ethical principles and theories is also included in this assignment. Ethical principles and theories are the foundations of the ethical analysis because they ate the viewpoints of the guidelines which can be obtained along the pathway to a decision. The ethical theories emphasise the different points of predicting the outcome and the following duties to the individuals in order to reach an ethically correct decision. however, ethical theories are useful because the theory is directed towards a common set of thegoals.

The ethical principles are the common goals which the theory tries to achieve in order to be success. These goals includeds Autonomy, Beneficence, non – malfiecence and justice. These 4 ethical principles has 4 different meaning which I will describe in details into my assignment. I will also mention the NMC Code of conduct which will inlcluderespect, dignity, honesty, confidentiality, equity, and valuing diversity, all these would be explained in briefly into the assignment. The NMC Nursing and Midwifery Council Code of Conduct (2010) states that the individuals should be treated with respect and dignity. The health care rofessionals should recognise and maintain diversity, respect, cultural differences, values, dignity, confidentiality, and beliefs of the individuals they care for.

This case study is about blood transfusion, The 70 years old man is refusing to have blood transfusion. The nurses and his relatives are also trying to convince him to have blood transfusion but he’s refusing to have blood transfusion. The reason this patient is refusing to have blood transfusion is because of his cultural differences and beliefs, the health care professionals should respect his cultural differences, beliefs and his own values towards this treatment.

The NMC Code of Conduct (2010) states that the health care professionals should listen to the individuals and respond to their concerns and preferences. . In the case study it suggested that the nurse has tried to convince patient to have blood transfusion but he was refusing to have blood transfusion, so it’s very important that the health care professionals should promote choices to patients so that they are aware of their treatments whether they wants to have it or not they can decide.

The NMC Code of Conduct (2010) states that people should respect individuals rights to confidentiality and also not to disclose any information to any third person if they are not entitled to it. The health care professionals shouldn’t pass any relevant information to anyone, without patient consents. The NMC Code of Conduct (2010) states that the health care professionals should ensure that they get patients consents before they begins to provide care for them, which means in the case study the nurse should get patient consent before she give blood transfusion so that the patient is aware of their treatment.

The NMC Code of Conduct (2010) states that the health care professionals should be very honest and trustworthy when they are completing patients records and medical notes. The professional values are set of the moral principles and standards of the conduct, which supports the moral prestige of the professional groups in the society. The professional ethics are there to identify the moral standards and assessments, judgments and the concepts which characterise the individuals as representatives of a particular profession. The professional’s values develop norms, standards, requirements, typical to certain activities.

The values are designed to educate people, and also help the individuals to behave properly with others, and communicate well at the workplace. The health care professionals should communicate with the patient with respect and dignity. Nurses shouldn’t force patient to have blood transfusion. The personal values which are ideals, beliefs, customs and characteristics which an individuals or particular group or society moderators valuable and worthwile. As a health care professionals they have to make innumerable decisions everyday how to care for patients and which sorts of care should they provide.

Some of these decisions will have no moral substances. For example: the health care professionals have to decide that the patients should be bathedbefore breakfasthas been cathegorised as a matter of experience effeciency and custom of order. (2004) thornes et al page : 46. Patient may have their own personal values to themselves, they might not prefer of having any pressure or force of having a treatment, they can decide or choose what is best for them. Ethical issues approach focuses on ethical issues that arise in practice.

These are usually big moral dilemmas that be inclined to take over in the media, such as terminating life – sustaining treatment. The ethical concepts approach begins by looking at the development of the professional codes of conducts of ethics and then challenges the values that notifys practice and how significance conflicts are resolved. It also explores diverse ethical principles and concepts. (2004) thrones et al page 74 The equity of care means individuals patients or clients should be treated fairly accooding to their needs but that denies their differences and individuality.

We living in multi cultural society and the codes requires nurses to promote and protect the interests and dignity of the patients and the clients, gender, age, race, ability, sexuality, economic status, lifestyle, culture, religious. (2005) chapman et al page no: 26 Autonomy it’s dominant to realise that the patients has personal autonomy and therefore they have rights to agree or disagree with the action or treatments, even refusal may result in harm or death of the individuals.

In this case if a patient don’t want to have blood transfusion, the health care professionals shouldn’t force or pressure the individuals patients to have blood transfusion. This is their own choices and decisions not to have this particular treatment, so the health care professionals should not force them to have this treatment. It’s very important that the health care professionals ask consent to the patients before they begins with any treatments, so that the patients is aware of it. If a patients is egally incompetent to make an informed decision the health care professionals should try and find out about their wishes which they previously expressed in the statement for example: the living will. So if the patient was legally competent than the health care professionals should respect their choices and decisions. (2005) chapman et al page 48 Benefience and non – maleficence this imposes a duty to do good and avoid or minimise the harm of the patients. It require the the health care professionals helps the patients and clients by promoting and safe guarding their welfare.

Nurses duty is to treat individuals with respect when it involves their cultural and linguistic backgrounds, their treatments, the health care professionals should pay more attentions to their verbal and non – verbal communications when they communicate with the individuals patients. Recurrently in the line of the duties of care of the nurses come with the ethical dilemmas and the moral dilemmas which requires the health care professionals to exhibit the benefiences and non – malfiecence in agreement with the appropriate treatment for the patients.

Patients has all rights to decide and choose their treatment in this case patient too incapacitate to make their needs or wishes known the nurses must lean heavily to the side of benefience. Justice which requires the equal treatment of the equal cases. It is concerned with the allcation of health resources and means that there should be nodiscriminationon the basis of gender, age, race, relligion. Patient shouldn’t be discriminated against their cultural differences or beliefs. The age discrimation act suggets that individuals shouldn’t be discriminated againt their age.

In this essay I have discussed the case study of a patient who has been admitted to the casulty department after had a road traffic. He has sustained some severe injuries he needs blood transfusion. He refused to consent to this treatment due to his religious and beliefs purpose, although he understands that his life is at risk. He was unconscious few times. His relatives is agreed with the treatment which he will receive from the hospital but he still refused to have blood transfusion. The nurses tried to convince him for taking the treatment but his still refusing. The nurses have to respect the patient dignity and choices. This case study