In the past, sewer lines and treatment plants were not as efficient as they are now, and many people were still able to live healthy and hygienic lives.
Describe ways in which the black waters were taken care of and how these systems can be implemented with little modification to help people reduce the amounts of raw sewage produced.
Black waters refer to water which is contaminated with human or animal wastes, foods or grease (Lodha, 1993). It is commonly termed as sewage. Black waters are a major source of both water – borne and air-borne diseases. Consequently, they must be thoroughly treated before they are released to the environment or recycled. The major sources of black water include toilets, kitchen sinks and laundry water (Lodha, 1993). Factually, management of black waters has been a chronic problem.
In the ancient period, humans separated black waters from water sources using various mechanisms. Primarily, human waste was collected as prized products. Feces was considered as fertilizer while urine was used in some industries like laundry (water &sewage works, 1890). Additionally, black waters could be held in simple tanks for disinfecting before they were released or used as fertilizer. Black waters could also be disposed of in pits dug on earth (water &sewage works, 1890). Currently, modern composting lavatories can be constructed in homes and institutions. This will facilitate fumigation of black waters making them less harmful. Holding cisterns used in the past can be modified into advanced sewer structures. These sewer structures can then be channeled into a compound treatment compartment. Black waters can then be treated and rechanneled into farms for use in crop production.
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There are many methods used in countries and regions with short water supplies; research and discuss some of those systems.
Water plays a critical role in disposition of black waters. Unfortunately, many countries and regions experience regular water shortages. These countries have adapted various measures so as to save on water during dispensation of black waters. Some countries encourage installation of toilets tanks with less water volume thus save on water usage during flushing away of wastes (Lodha, 1993). Also, in some regions, pressure assisted toilets are erected to cut down on water consumption after use (Lodha, 1993). Additionally, some countries thoroughly treat black waters which are then recycled, consequently saving on water.
Lodha, R. M. (1993). Environmental ruin: The crisis of survival. New Delhi: Indus Pub. Co.
Water & sewage works. (1890). Chicago, etc: Scranton Pub. Co., etc..