Describe and explain the different processes of radicalization

Unit Introduction By definition, radicalization is a process by which individuals; especially the young people are introduced to a belief system and ideological messages which encourages a movement from mainstream and moderate beliefs towards intense beliefs (Ashour, 2009). Therefore, it is a critical subject on the terrorist threat. Radical thinking is problematic and a threat to national security when citizens or residents of any country engages in violent actions as a means of promoting religious, ideological and political extremism. Radicalization is also known as “ Homegrown terrorism”, which Dearey (2010) claims that it has led to terrorist violence. Dearey (2010) adds that radical thinking is not harmful at all. For example, Martin Luther was said to be radical as well as Moses, Nelson Mandela, Jesus, and Mohammed among others. Additionally, most progresses have been as a result of outcome of radicalization and the set of minds that comes with it. Everyone has his or her opinions and views that others define as radical. Bott, et., al (2006) asserts that radicals do not necessarily result to terrorism, some plays a big role in the society and in politics. However, they become problematic when they use their radical thinking to condone or promote violence, terrorism, and extremist behaviors. In this regard, this paper aims at discussing various processes of radicalization, explaining if the processes always lead to terrorist. Public awareness is one type of radicalization that is always determined by personalities and events. In a contemporary context, radicalization is always linked to Islam’s, but this is not to say that Muslims are terrorists. They do not necessarily advocate for violence, although, Ashour (2009), claims that Hamas and alQaeda teachings are associated with it. So far the most problematic Islamist group is alQaeda who are associated with recent radicalization that lead to terrorism in United States and Canada, as well as other places that were associated with alQaeda influence. Public awareness radicalization has spanned all animal activists, environmental, left to right spectrum among others, but within religious and ethnic interests. However, radicalization occurs due to a number of influences and factors nor is it limited to any interest or ethnic group. Moreover, domestic radicalization is associated with extremist violent Islamist group and has become a particular concern for security and law enforcement, Bott et al. (2006). For example, almost all the actual and planned terrorist’s attacks have been carried out by young Muslims. Pre-radicalization is a process of ordinary life before radicalization. This is determined by an individual’s current environment and background. In this process, an individual identifies himself with the various radical movements. When a crisis event occurs, an individual progresses towards a Salafi Islam, by regularly attending a mosque. Their personal behavior changes like smoking, drinking, and gambling among others as well as becoming involved in other social activism concerning Islam. Another process of radicalization is indoctrination where individuals focus and strengthen their beliefs. This is where individuals who focuses on worldviews politics relates everything thing to Islam Salafi Teachings, Bott, et., al (2006). After indoctrination, the individuals then politicize their new beliefs then jihadization where they start taking actions based on their beliefs. For example, a person can decide to relocate to those countries that are associated with conflicts training in order to practice jihad and express his faith. One can also decide to search for words of encouragement from the internet before the attack, or buying explosives used to attack. Dearey (2010), explains that there are no extreme pathways to extremists, because the above cases take a different form of radicalization. This is to mean that when an individual undergoes the processes of radicalization it does not mean that they are terrorists or will commit acts of terrorisms. Individuals take different paths of radicalization. There are those people who undergo the various forms of radicalization but never commit any act of terrorism. A popular explanation of a kind of radicalization which leads to terrorism is that one that leads to failure of integration and multiculturalism. This kind of explanation takes an assumption that a particular group of people takes a high risk into getting involved in terrorist activities for example, immigrant’s youth who find themselves marginalized and trapped by conflicts of radicalization. Ashour (2009), contends that in European experience, there are those native-born individuals who become radicalized to a point of getting involved with terrorist activities and most often they are not different from their peers. A good example, is 7/7 bombers of martyrdom statements from North England who had a formal education and other meaningful jobs as well as crossed cultural and ethnic boundaries. Therefore, as explained above there is a common factor for the radicals who emerge from socio-economic classes, invested by status quo. Conclusion Radicalization will always remain a phenomenon because it is difficult to predict is an individual who undergoes radicalization will become a terrorist or not. Alienation problems cannot be said to be the source of the problem because it is not always useful in trying to solve or address the problem. It is also a complex issue with a number of social and political factors globally. However, radicals do not necessarily result to terrorism, some play an immense role in the society and in politics. They become problematic when they use their radical thinking to condone or promote violence, terrorism and extremist behaviors. References Ashour. O(2009), The de-radicalization of Jihadists: transforming armed Islamist movements Contemporary terrorism studies. New York: VDM Verlag Bott, C., Leetz, J., Kirkpatrick, S., Homeland Security Institute (U. S.), & United States. (2006). Radicalization: An overview and annotated bibliography of open-source literature. Arlington, Va: Homeland Security Institute Dearey, M. (2010). Radicalization: The life writings of political prisoners. Oxon: Routledge Leiken, Robert S. &Brooke, 2007) “ The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood.” Foreign Affairs. New York: Routledge