Composition of president

The Underlying Causes and Failures of the Philippine Revolts Against Spanish Rule During the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, several revolts against Spain were undertaken for various reasons. However, it can be agreed upon that the common underlying cause of these revolts were the generally repressive policies of the Spanish colonial government against the native Filipinos. Many of these revolts though have failed. The specific underlying causes of these revolts have distinct circumstances that need to be studied in Philippines History. We now take a look on how these revolts prospered from its main cause and failure to subjugate the Spanish rule . In 1585, the popular revolt of Pampanga was undertaken due to abuses felt by the natives inflicted by the encomenderos. The native Kapampangan leaders failed to implement the revolt because a Filipina married to a Spanish soldier reported the plot to Spanish authorities. For their actions, the leaders of the revolt were ordered executed. The revolt against the tribute in 1589 occurred in the present day provinces of Cagayan, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur in 1589. The natives, which included the Ilocanos, Ibanags and others, rose in revolt over alleged abuses by tax collectors, such as the collection of unjust taxes. Governor-General Santiago de Vera sent Spanish troops to pacify the rebels. They were eventually granted pardon, along with the overhaul of the Philippine tax system. From 1649 to 1950, another popular revolt which was known as the Sumuroy Revolt came from the present town now of town of Palapag in Northern Samar, Juan Ponce Sumuroy, a Waray, and some of his followers rose in arms on June 1, 1649 over the polo system being undertaken in Samar. The government in Manila directed that all natives subject to the polo are not to be sent to places distant from their hometowns to do their polo. However, under orders of the various town alcaldes, or mayors, Samarnons were being sent to the shipyards of Cavite to do their polo, which sparked the revolt. The local parish priest of Palapag was murdered and the revolt eventually spread to Mindanao, Bicol and the rest of the Visayas, especially in places such as Cebu, Masbate, Camiguin, Zamboanga, Albay, Camarines and parts of northern Mindanao, such as Surigao. A free government was also established in the mountains of Samar. The defeat, capture and execution of Sumuroy in June 1650 led to the end of the revolt. The unique revolt that happened in 1744 was the Dogohoy revolt which was completely related to matters of religious customs. This was undertaken by Francisco Dagohoy. After a duel in which Dagohoy’s brother died, the local parish priest refused to give his brother a proper Christian burial, since dueling is a mortal sin. The refusal of the priest to give his brother a proper Christian burial eventually led to the longest revolt ever held in Philippine history: 85 years. It also led to the establishment of a free Boholano government. Twenty governors-general, from Juan Arrechederra to Manuel Ricafort Palacín y Ararca, failed to stop the revolt. Ricafort himself sent a force of 2, 200 troops to Bohol, which was defeated by Dagohoy’s followers. Another attack, also sent by Ricafort in 1828 and 1829, failed as well. Dagohoy died two years before the revolt ended, though, which led to the end of the revolt in 1829. Some 19, 000 survivors were granted pardon and were eventually allowed to live in new Boholano villages: namely, the present-day towns of Balilihan, Batuan, Bilar (Vilar), Catigbian and Sevilla (Cabulao). After a year another revolt was undertaken because agrarian problems. The Filipino Landowners rose in arms over the land-grabbing of Spanish friars, with native landowners demanding that Spanish priests return their lands on the basis of ancestral domain. The refusal of the Spanish priests resulted in much rioting, resulting in massive looting of convents and arson of churches and ranches. This was then called “ Agrarian Revolt” which first sparked in the towns of Lian and Nasugbu in Batangas. The date of the revolt started between the years 1745 and 1746. An interesting result of this revolt was when the court of King Philip heard the incident he ordered the priests to return the lands they seized. However, the priests made an appeal to the Spanish government and successfully able to appeal the return of lands back to the natives, which resulted in no land being returned to native landowners. The most famous revolts in Philippine History was the Silang Revolt which took place during the British invasion of Manila . The revolt started in December 14, 1762 which Diego Silang declared the independence of “ Ilocandia” , naming the state ” Free Ilocos” and proclaimed Vigan the capital of this newly-independent state. The British heard about this revolt in Manila and even asked the help of Silang in fighting the Spanish. However, Silang was killed on May 28, 1763 by Miguel Vicos, a friend of Silang. The Spanish authorities paid for his murder, leading to his death in the arms of his wife, Gabriela. She continued her husband’s struggle, earning the title ” Joan of Arc of the Ilocos” because of her many victories in battle. The battles of the Silang revolt were prime example of the use of divide et impera, since Spanish troops largely used Kampampangan soldiers to fight the Ilocanos. Eventually, the revolt ended with the defeat of the Ilocanos. Gabriela Silang was executed by Spanish authorities in Vigan on September 10, 1763. Another revolt that happened in Ilocos was the Basi Revolt also known as the Ambaristo revolt which was undertaken from September 16-28, 1807. The revolt was very unique because the underlying cause was the Ilocanos’ love for basi or sugar cane wine. In 1786, the Spanish colonial government expropriated the manufacture and sale of basi, effectively banning private manufacture of the wine, which was done before expropriation. Ilocanos were forced to buy from government stores. However, wine-loving Ilocanos in Piddig rose in revolt on September 16, 1807, with the revolt spreading to nearby towns and with fighting lasting for weeks. However, the Spanish troops eventually quelled the revolt on September 28, 1807, albeit with much force and loss of life on the losing side. Finally, on the most famous revolts was the Religious Revolt of Hermano Pule which was undertaken between June 1840 and November 1841. This revolt was known as Pule Revolt which was led by Apolinario de la Cruz, otherwise known as ” Hermano Pule”. De la Cruz started his own religious order, the Confraternity of Saint Joseph (Spanish: Confradia de San José) in Lucban, located in the present-day province of Quezon (then called Tayabas), in June of 1840. However, there were two types of priests in the Philippines then: secular priests, or parish priests, which were usually Filipino, and religious priests, or convent priests, which were usually Spanish. Due to the concentration of Spanish religious power and authority in the already-established religious orders (the Augustinians, Jesuits and Franciscans to name a few) and the concept that Filipino priests should only stay in the church and not the convent and vice-versa (although this was not always followed), the Spanish government banned the new order, especially due to its deviation from original Catholic rituals and teachings, such as prayers and rituals suited for Filipinos. However, thousands of people in Tayabas, Batangas, Laguna and even Manila already joined. Because of this, the Spanish government sent in troops to forcibly break up the order, forcing De la Cruz and his followers to rise in armed revolt in self-defense. Many bloody battles were fought with the order’s last stand in Mount San Cristobal, near Mount Banahaw, in October of 1841. The Spaniards eventually won, and Apolinario de la Cruz was executed on November 4, 1841 in the then-provincial capital, Tayabas. It did not end there, though. Many members of the Spanish armed forces’ Tayabas regiment, based in Malate in Manila, had relatives that were members of the order, of which many of those relatives were also killed in the ensuing violence. On January 20, 1843, the regiment, led by Sergeant Irineo Samaniego, rose in mutiny, eventually capturing Fort Santiago in Intramuros. The next day, however, the gates of Fort Santiago were opened by loyalist soldiers. After a bloody battle, the mutineers were defeated by loyalist troops, resulting in the execution of Samaniego and 81 of his followers the same day. An interesting insights about the underlying causes of the Philippine revolt can be studied from the insights of Boquiren (1999) which had been presented on the streams in peasant movements : A. 1565-1663 Peasant movements within this period were generally characterized as immediate reactions to the different aspects of colonialism and the state that the local communities were confronting at the time of contact. The revolts were brought about largely as a result of: 1. oppression through colonial policies such as the tribute, bandala (or reales compras) , polo, and other extractions; 2. (reaction to) the alien character of the new state imposed upon the people (this was true among the dispossessed datu and maharlika class, and may have been a deeper motivation); and negation of ancient ways and beliefs (as foreign values and customs were thrust upon the country, resulting in social disorientation). In particular instances, the revolts differed in the specific mixture of the elements that went into their making. Nonetheless, it will be useful to summarize the general character of and directions in these peasant movements. Revolts in LUZON were generally more political in character, specifically within the old Pampanga-Manila-Mindoro area of state construction. In Ilocos, meanwhile, revolts constituted a religio-cultural, nativistic negation of Hispanic cultural predominance. (Boquiren : 1999) A. 1565-1663 Luzon Revolts June 1571 ( 3 days) : (Tondo , Manila- Mindoro Circumference area) – MACABEBES led by ” the King of Macabebes” – Some 2, 000 Macababe warriors (from Pampanga), a reaction against foreign political set-up and religion; quelled by Pintados and Spanish soldiers under Goiti August 1571 ( Cainta) – Tagalogs 1574 ( Navotas (Manila to Cavite, Batangas, and Mindoro) – Manila Revolt led by Lakan Dula, involving some 10, 000 natives (during Limahong’s attacks) as reactions against Spanish officials extractions of food supply; turned out to be anti-Spanish (civil officials and priests) 1585 (Manila, Batangas, Cavite, Laguna, Bulacan) – TONDO CONSPIRACY (of all the datus of the (1st attempt) Pampanga and Tagalog Region) to expel the Spaniards led by Agustin de Legazpi, Martin Panga 1587 – Second attempt) led by Magat Salamat – with the help of the Japanese at first, and then of the Borneans 1584 ( Pampanga) – Because of the famine caused by the polo 1580s – Reported: numerous revolts in Cagayan and Ilocos as initial reactions to colonial policies 1596(Cagayan) – Magalat 1607 ( Cagayan) – Chief of Malaguey” 1643 ( Bulacan) – led by Don Pedro Ladia, nativist political revolt with religious undertones. Ladia claimed the right to be ” King over the provinces of the Tagalogs” in his appeal to the ancient indigenous religion 1645 ( Nueva Ecija /Gapan in Pampanga then) – led by ” an Indian sorcerer,” *nativist, religious (kill the Spaniards and the religion which caused the people disaster, ” slay the fathers and burn the churches”) 1660(Pampanga, with contacts in Pangasinan, the Ilocos and Cagayan) – MANIAGO REVOLT (was actually a non-revolt) led by Don Francisco Maniago, initially caused by natives’ protest against the polo and bandala, later became a struggle to free the natives from Spanish rule. The rebels were weakened by Gov. de Lara’s cooperation of Arayat chief Macapagal – PANGASINAN REVOLT (Malong) led by Don Andres Malong, the ” King of Pangasinan” with some 11, 000 men in all. Called for the elimination of the Spanish civil bureaucracy, in place of which Malong set up a rudimentary one consisting of a count, a judge, and army generals based at ” Palapag”; his weakness: he spared the religious which was why he did not have a committed following. – GUMAPOS, with the help of Zambals and de Vera ( In Ilocos and Cagayan) – ILOCOS REVOLT led by Pedro Almazan, ” King of the Ilocos”, with the help of Isnegs; response to Malong’s appeal in Ilocos In the VISAYAS, nativistic sentiment was much stronger than elsewhere, as indicated in the fact that the communities sought in the ancient religion and culture the strength and resources for the struggle against Spanish political and cultural dominance. Visayan Revolts 1588 (Cebu, Panay, other Visayan islands) – Minor revolts against colonial policies 1621 ( Bohol) – TAMBLOT REVOLT of 2, 000 men led by the babaylan Tamblot, called for the rejection of Catholic religion, people to rise up against the Spaniards. Tamblot reported the appearance of a diwata who promised the natives a life of happiness and abundance ” without paying tribute to the Spaniards or dues to the churches 1621 ( Bohol) – BANCAO, a chief of Limasaua, led a nativistic movement. He erected a temple to the diwata and called on the people to destroy church property 1649-1650 (Samar, Leyte, Albay, Camarines Sur, Bohol, Cebu, Iligan, Camiguim, Surigao and Zamboanga ) – SUMUROY REVOLT led by the father of Sumuroy and himself, Don Juan Ponce, Don Pedro Camuug, against the polo, but with a nativistic, anti-friar impulsion behind it – DABAO (” tricky Dabao”), from Butuan to Cebu, through Leyte and Samar, and parts of Bicol: the territory of the ancient Visayan rajahs in Northern Mindanao 1663 ( Panay) – TAPAR REBELLION led by the sorcerer Tapar who went around as a woman, as a babaylan; nativist, with Christian organizational scheme inspiration He taught his followers to worship idols, performed prodigies resembling miracles, and became a prophet. He promised the natives: a . a life of abundance (leaves into fish, coconut fiber into linen) b. that they won’t be hit/won’t die when hit by Spanish muskets; those who will die in the rebellion will live again. Tapar as the ” Eternal Father,” among his followers were assigned a ” Son,” a ” Holy Ghost,” a ” Virgin Mary,” twelve apostles, a ” Pope,” several bishops B. 1663-1765 The revolts toward the 18th century differed from the earlier ones in that they were more intense, more widespread, and longer in duration. The following were the common features in these revolts: 1. They revealed direct links between the pre-Spanish centers of state construction and the aspirations of the leaders (for a return to the pre-colonial society/situation) 2. They also endeavored to achieve hegemony on a regional scope 3. All were rural-based, and had as aim the restitution of lands and the melioration of the plight of the impoverished peasants. 4. There evolved a new pattern of resistance which unified the kasama and principalia against the colonial society in the Tagalog area, the kailianes and babacnang of Ilocos; the peasants and the anacbanuas of Pangasinan, the Timauas and ethnic (tribal) groups of Cagayan. (Prior to this period, the revolts were characterized as conflicts between the peasantry and the whole colonial machinery – which included the principales to some extent. ) 5. All revolts also revealed the schism within the principalia (which the religious orders fomented), and thus gave birth to the confrontation between opposition and collaboration as tendencies of the elite. 6. To some extent, there was also some sort of an awakening which took place among the ” abogadillos” and ” apo de radillos” who assisted those who joined in the struggle (this being an indication of a positive desire to assert native identity against the political power of the colonizer). In this alliance prefigured the future revolutionary coalition between the peasant movement and the expanded ilustrado- principalia of the 19th century . Three types of revolt characterized movements during the period: 1. the essentially agrarian uprisings in 1745 in the Tagalog regions 2. the political revolts which took place mainly in Northern Luzon 3. the culturally-controlled rebellion in Bohol which lasted for almost 80 years    C. 1765-1815 Manifestations of the growing nationalism were in the form of mass uprisings as a result of intensifying colonial exploitation in view of new economic orientation which the influence of the physiocrats in Europe brought about. The stress on monocropping-based commercial agricultural production and exchange did not only expand to become region-wide (hence, the regionalization of commodity production along a few select export crops like coconut, tobacco, sugarcane and cotton), but it also intensified land concentration among fewer families and religious corporations through the sanglang-bili and outright landgrabbing, The more known revolts during the period were the following: D. 1815-1872 The period is characterized by the emergence of a counter-consciousness, a developing national identity which frontally confronted the instruments of colonial control. The key institutions which became targets of struggles were the church in the form of the secularization movement as well as the reform movement in the legislative and judicial functions of the colonial government through lobbying and tirade by the insulares (Philippine-born Spaniards) and Spanish mestizos. Hermano Pule’s Cofradia de San Jose started as an open, devotional organization in late 1840. It later became some sort of a secret movement. By 1841 it began to espouse armed confrontation with the colonial authorities. It became known as a colorum movement as it spread to Tayabas, Laguna, and Batangas. This was clearly a semi-nativistic confraternity in the sense that it had syncretic elements of both the Christian and native religions. Yet, it was a direct challenge to the ecclesiastical status quo, in that its organization and activities were directed to the pursuit of the limited goal of creating within the Church a satisfactory environment for religious expression in which a Filipino leadership could function without the handicaps created by the religious orders (viz, the Dominicans). It was also proto-political in the sense that although it had an organizational machinery, this was still not broad-based and had not formulated a program. Pule had connections with the creole Domingo de Ropjas of Manila and his secular priest. This movement was confronted by state (and Church) repression. In the urban centers, the secularization movement was characterized by student and youth organizing in support of the demand to cut the control by religious corporations over the local churches and greater participation by the Insulares and half-breeds in the administrative functions of government. E. 1872-1896 Uprisings during this period merged with initiatives of the urban middle class, which eventually saw the outbreak of the revolution in 1896. The merging of the anti-feudal, anti-cleric and anti-colonial character of social movements was finally achieved within the last decade of the 19th century, not only through the Katipunan-led organization but even moreso by the peasant movements that presaged it. Papa Isio’s movement was clearly a separatist movement at the start which mobilized under the slogan ” Long Live Rizal, Long Live the Free Philippines,” ” Down with the Spaniards.” As Papa Isio promised, ” the lands would be partitioned among the people, that machinery would no longer be permitted on the island, and that nothing but palay would henceforth be planted.” It eventually developed into an anti-protestant and anti-foreign movement (haciendas owned by the natives were not touched, unless the owners of these cooperated with the enemies). F. 1896-1930s The intrusion of Americans in the revolution against Spain saw the systematic weakening of the Philippine revolutionary forces. During the crucial period of intense American pacification campaigns within the first decade of the 1900s, these local, nativistic and/or millenarian movements provided for the continuity in the national struggle while the resistance of the forces of Aguinaldo was being undermined. The resurgence of militant nationalism from the ranks of Aguinaldo accordingly saw the renewed links of the local movements with the national struggle B. 1663-1765 Luzon and Visayan Revolts 1718 ( Cagayan Valley) – Itaves and Irraya led by Luis Magtangaga; a nativist-religious, anti-Christian movement, brought about by worsening conditions : economic crisis brought about by crop failure, excessive oppression by the Alcalde Mayor Zorilla (high prices, excessive/ arbitrary grain-tribute, and personal services) 1718 ( Cainta) – signs of restiveness in the Visayas reported Cebu, Oton, Negros in Manila 1718-1719 ( Pangasinan) – Caragay (a social bandit), in reaction against oppressive acts of Alcalde-Mayor Antonio del Valle 1745 ( Tagalong Area) – TAGALOG AGRARIAN UPRISING to recover the communal lands system on account of the gradual encroachment of the religious haciendas viz. the Hispanic proprietary rights and customs. 1762-1764 – LACAADEN, and KIDIT wage attacks against religious and punitive missions in Tonglo and its neighboring villages in the Mount Santo Tomas area | | | | | | | LUZON & VISAYAN REVOLTS | | Date | Description of struggle | Base and scope | | | | Cagayan Valley | | | |   | | 1718 | | Cainta | | | | Pangasinan | | | |   | | 1745-1745 | | Tagalog Area | | | |   | | 1759 | | Benguet | | 1762-1764 | | Binalatongan in Pangasinan | | 1744-1829 | DAGOHOY, assisted by some members of the principalia: Calixto Sotero of | Bohol | | | Tagbilaran, Captain |   | | | Miguelillo and Yslao of Baclayon, Pedro Cortez Flores, Lazaro Sotario, and| | | | Narciso delos Santos of Dauis, Bohol has a heroic tradition-although | | | | situated on the seashore, the Moros never infested it. | |  C. 1765-1815 | Date | Description of struggle | Base and scope | | 1872-1910 | GUARDIA de HONOR | Pangasinan, | | 1872-1882 | Originally a loyalist group created by the Dominican friars, designed to | La Union | |   | promote Christian values, with clerical sanction. |   | |   | Became a millenarian movement under the |   | | 1883-1896 | leadership of a charismatic couple, faith healers ” Apo Laqui” (Julian | | |   | Baltazar) and his blind wife. | | |   | Anti-cacique (by 1900s) | | | 1896-1910 | | | | 1886-1889 | DIOS BUHAWI | Negros | | 1889 | CA MARTIN | Negros | | 1887-1907 | BABAYLANES (or PULAHANES or MONTESCAS or CIVIL) | Negros | | |*Led by PAP ISIO (Dionisio Magbuelas; Sigobelya) |   | | Date | Description of struggle | Base and scope | | 1839-1841 | COFRADIA de SAN JOSE | Tayabas | | | led by Hermano Pule (Apolinario dela Cruz) | | | | Hermano de la Archi-Cofradia del Glorioso | | | | Senor San Jose y de la Virgen del Rosario | | | |(Brotherhood of the Great Sodality of the Glorious Lord Saint Joseph and of| | | | the Virgin of the Rosary) | | | Date | Description of struggle | Base and scope | | 1807 | BASI REVOLT | Ilocos | | |*reaction to the government wine monopoly |   | | |   | | | 1815 | SARRAT REBELLION | Ilocos | | |*anti-cacique |   | | | opted for egalitarian society, but within | | | |(context of) Spanish colonial state | | Guide Questions: 1. What was the common underlying cause of the Philippine rebellion? 2. Give a brief discussion on the following revolts: a) Pampanga Revolt (1585) b) Revolt Against the Tribute c) Sumuroy Revolt ( 1649-80) d) Dagohoy Revolt ( 1744-1829) e) Agrarian Revolt ( 1745-48) f) Silang Revolt ( 1762-63) 3. What were the reasons of the Philippine revolts in 1565-1663? 4. What were the general reasons of Philippine revolts that happened in Luzon and Visayas? 5. Enumerate and describe the Philippine revolts that happened in Luzon and Visayas? 6. Do you think the revolts 1863-1765 were the same from the earlier ones? Justify your answer. 7. What were the common features of the Philippine revolts in 1565-1663? 8. What were the three types of revolt that characterized the movements in 1565-1663? 9. Was the revolt of 1765-1815 manifested by the growing nationalism of the peasant? Explain your answer. 10. Was the revolt of 1815-1872 characterized by the emergence of a counter-consciousness in the securalization movement ? Cite an instance that supports this answer. Was the revolt of1872-1896 initiated by the urban middle class? Prove your answer. The Development of a National Consciousness 1. How did the Filipinos develop their national consciousness? 2. What were the prime causes in the development of the national consciousness of the Filipinos? 3. What can you say the administration of Governor General Carlos Maria de la Torre in his extended reform for the Filipinos? 4. What was the reaction of the friars and other conservative Spaniard in Manila on the liberal administration of Governor General Carlos Mario de la Torre? 5. Who were the identified liberal reformists implicated in the Cavite mutiny on January 20, 1872? José Rizal and the Propaganda Movement 1. What was the main goal of the Propaganda Movement that initiated by the Filipino émigrés in Europe? 2. What were the specific goals of the Propaganda movement? 3. How did it contribute to the development of the national consciousness of the Filipinos? 4. Who was the most outstanding propagandist that contributed the greatest impact on the development of the Filipino national consciousness? Cite other instances that you know that shaped the future of the Filipino nation. 5. Who were the other propagandists that contributed much to the development of the Filipino nation? Cite their contributions and its impact to the development of the national consciousness of the Filipinos. Spirit of Nationhood ( A Quote on the Spirit of Nationhood) 1. Explain the idea on the “ Spirit of Nationhood” that had its roots in the scattered towns of Philippine Society during the Spanish period. 2. What are your reactions and comments on the following questions about the untold mysteries, anomalies, and secrets in the history of the Philippines: a) Did you know that the ilustrados were the first articulators of the revolution? b) Did you know that the first ‘Filipinos” were not pure filipinos but were creoles, Españoles-Filipinos, or the Spaniards born in the Philippines? c) Did you know that three groups composed the nucleus of the reforms known as the Propaganda movement? d) Did you know that the first purely Filipino organization was the La Solidaridad organized in Barcelona on December 13, 1888? e) Did you know that del Pilar and Rizal, two of the Philippine’s most famous and active propagandists, had a misunderstanding resulting to the latter’s withdrawal of his support fot the La Solidaridad? f) Did you know that Graciano Lopez Jaena ridiculed his colleagues in La Solidaridad when pension from Manila supporters did not materialize and that he devoted himself to fulfilling his ambition to be elected to the Cortes but without success? g) Did you know why the Propaganda movement failed to unite the Filipino people? h) Do you know the aims of Rizal’s La Liga Filipina? i) Did you know that during the Spanish period, land rentals increased from year to year and that social injustice was so rampant in the rural areas? j) Do you know who betrayed the Katipunan causing many of its members to be imprisoned and persecuted. k) Did you know where the first real encounter between Spanish forces and the Katipunan took place? l) Did you know that Bonifacio was tried and sentenced in a mock trialby Aguinaldo’s council because he was accused of plotting Aguinaldo’s death? 41 Wikipedia, “ Philippine Revolts Againts Spain” 42 Boquiren, Rowena Reyes. Lectured on History of Colonialism and Struggle, Local Streams in the Philippines delivered during the1999 Ibon Philippine Educators Training, ) Baguio City