IDEM reported that disasters such as floods, storms and earthquakes triggered the displacement of over 15 million, more than 90% of which were related to climate or extreme weather events. Displacement related to slow-onset disasters, Including drought and long-term processes of environmental degradation and habitat loss displace many more, but Is UN-quantified.
International Organization for Migration The links betweenclimate changeand migration, however, are complicated and still poorly understood. Such changes are rarely unique drivers of population escapement. They are one significant determinant, in conjunction with economic, social and political factors, and usually linked to existing vulnerabilities. While the growth of environmental refugees has been the most significant in sub-Sahara Africa, other areas are also at heavy risk.
Areas at risk that have been identified include: Yemen, China, Louisiana, Devalue, Jackrabbit, Bangladesh. Yemen may run out of water, China Is affected by the expansion of Gobo desert, Louisiana and Alaska are losing land to the sea at about 3 meters per year, Devalue or Jackrabbit are among the cost threatened, as they are situated only centimeters above water and Bangladesh may lose one-fifth of Its surface area due to rolling sea levels.
Terrible predictions on environmental forced migration have been suggested also for other areas of the world, including Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Turkey, Vietnam, Niger, Ghana, Ecuador, Mexico, Argentina etc Regional Academy on the united Nations: Climate refugees in the 21st century: December 2012 reportCase Study1: Somalia; While the crisis that hit Somalia in 2011 was generally attributed to drought, other intriguing factors included ongoing conflict, violenceand restrictions on aid organizations to operate In militia-controlled areas.
More than 300, 000 Somalis fled during the year, mostly to Ethiopia and Kenya, bringing the total of Somali refugees estimated that almost one third of Somalia’s population of 7. 5 million has been displaced. Case study II: Devalue. A nation in ” God’s Hands” The case with the small coral atoll nation of Devalue might be a perfect example to see the question with the climate refugees from a really deferent perspective.
A Polynesian island state that consists f nine separate islands in the South Pacific Ocean spread over a very large area with only about 10, 000 inhabitants in total has been attracting a lot of attention with its unique situation associated with climate change and the sea-level rise. Devalue belongs to the group of countries comprised entirely of low-lying islands and atolls – the highest point of the country is only 4. 6 meters above the sea level which evidently makes the sea-level rise a major concern for the Devaluation population. According to some estimation, there Is about a 68% probability of the sea level change between . And 2. 7 mm/year. Some researchers state that Devalue will be practically resources. Having no surface rivers, streams or lakes, the inhabitants’ only option is to rely on rainwater. Therefore, long draughts (that have been more frequent in recent years) can be catastrophic to the nation. Observers state that land loss, shoreline retreat and coastal erosion are already affecting beach vegetation and mangrove forest in Devalue. At the same time, saline contamination of freshwater will affect humanhealth, increasing chances of diseases. Devaluations deeply attached to heir land, families andcultureand reluctant to leave their country.
The UN does not consider Devaluations as refugees. Despite all the discussions on how important it is to fill the gaps in the international legal regime affecting ” forcibly displaced persons”, the measures of the UN regarding the case with Devalue have been seen as ineffective. It has also been complicated by the fact that the position of the Devaluation government has resisted the inclusion of ‘relocation’ in international agreements and has been stating a couple of times that ” Devaluations will remain in Devalue” and were ailing the developed countries to reduce their emissions.
Regardless of that aid Devalue is receiving from the ELI, it is notable that Europe is much less keen on cooperation and usually doesn’t support Devalue when it is concerned with the emissions cuts and for takingresponsibilityfor the climate change. The main difficulty in framing the issue is the normative gap in the legal framework as this category of people is yet not recognized under the international law. Another obstacle is the institutional gap, as there is no body currently mandated with responsibility for climate-induced displacement.