Cardiac Case Study Cardiac Case Study Case Study Questions: Myocardial Infarction Question The ST segment is a portion of theisoelectric line, which becomes evident immediately after an S wave precedes the T wave. It measures the time taken between ventricles’ depolarization and repolarization phases. Here, the key emphasis is on whether the line is depressed or elevated. An elevation of the ST segment reveals injury, serving as a first sign of heart attack on EGC. Since the ECG portrays the electrical performance of the heart, organs are improperly perfused when the heart becomes compromised (CGMH, 2015).
Question 2: Mr. Canton is experiencing cool, clammy skin and inspiratory crackles because of severe allergic reaction, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) anxiety, and low oxygen in the blood. These result from exhaustion of the heart, heart attack, artery blockage in the lungs, internal bleeding, pneumonia, dehydration, drug overdose causing heart function to reduce, and reduced blood pressure (Lee Linda, Bates, Pitt, & Walton, 2010).
Question 3: The pain that Mr. Canton is experiencing is not significant because it is not one of the major causes of his condition. The pain in his wisdom tooth is resulting from other causes rather than myocardial infarction (WEBMD, 2015).
Question 4: Mr. Canton vomits because his wall infarction is inferior. The inferior wall infarction is associated with gastrointestinal problems, particularly because of bradycardia. The inferior infarction results from cardiac sensory receptors, which mediate vasodepressor and cardioinhibitory responses, which are normally distributed to the left ventricle’s wall (Lee Linda, Bates, Pitt, & Walton, 2010).
Question 5: Elevation of isoenzymes prevails in body cells having a notable concentration in liver, heart, kidney, muscle, and erythrocytes. Just as in the case of proteins that mark function of tissues, elevation of isoenzymes occurs after hypoxia is prolonged. It occurs after hypoxia is prolonged in various clinical situations, such as cardiorespiratory diseases, disorders of kidneys, liver, muscle, and lung, as well as malignancy (Krucik, 2012).
Question 6: Myocardial infarction is a segmental necrosis of myocardial based in the endocardium. Areas where myocardial infarction occurs are subepicardial in the event of occlusion of small vessels, which come from coronary thrombi. For many patients, a disruptive coronary disease becomes evident at angiography. Infarction takes place where the occluded vessel is distributed. The occlusion of the left side of the coronary artery leads to major infarction of the anterolateral. For those hearts that are dominated by the right coronary, where the right artery supplying the posterior branches. Right artery’s occlusion causes an inferior infarction of the posterior. In the case where left coronary dominates, the proximal occlusion occurs leading to infarction of the posterior wall (Krucik, 2012).
Case Study Questions: Cardiogenic Shock
Question 1: The major processes leading to impairment of oxygen and use of glucose is a serious heart attack, mostly because of coronary heart disease. This leads to insufficient oxygen supply to the heart because coronary arteries are clogged. The shock makes it difficult for the heart to contract properly because of the serious of the damage. When the heart fails to contract properly, then it fails to pump sufficient blood to the aorta and to circulation. This leads to perfusion of tissues in a slow manner. The tissues that fail to receive sufficient flow of blood through them lead to accumulation of lactate because of the energetic processes, which take place during situations of low oxygen. This substance also accumulates in muscles when one is working. This leads to the production of notable acid in the body, which does not support life. Therefore, when in shock, Mr. Canton would be breath at a fast pace or hyperventilate to eliminate acidic carbon dioxide from the body (Krucik, 2012).
Question 2: In many cases, when oxygen lacks in a person’s heart, particularly because of heart attack, the major pumping area, the left ventricle becomes damaged. When the heart lacks sufficient blood in this part of the heart, the muscle of the heart weakens, leading to cardiogenic shock. It is rare for the right ventricle of the heart to be damaged when cardiogenic shock results. Damage on the right ventricle prevents the heart from pumping blood to lungs, hindering the heart from acquiring sufficient oxygen. The other reasons why cardiogenic shock results include heart valve infection, heart muscle inflammation, weak heart, poisoning, and drug overdose (Lee Linda, Bates, Pitt, & Walton, 2010).
Question 3: The coronary angioplasty process is realized when a catheter that is tipped in the form of a balloon is inserted to an artery in the arm or groin when enlarge a contracted coronary artery. This mostly occurs when cholesterol accumulates in the arteries’ that direct heart to the wall. With this process, it is possible for an individual to improve survival chances in the event of cardiogenic shock. This is because with the removal of the material accumulating in the arteries, the blood gets sufficient space to flow in the body. It gains access to more parts in the body supplying a person with more oxygen in the body.
CGMH. (2015). Cardiogenic Shock. Retrieved from http://www1. cgmh. org. tw/intr/intr5/c6700/OBGYN/f/web/Cardiogenic%20Shock/index. htm
Krucik, G. (2012). Cardiogenic Shock. Retrieved from http://www. healthline. com/health/cardiogenic-shock#Overview1
Lee Linda, Bates, E. R., Pitt, B., & Walton, J. A. (2010). Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Improves Survival in Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock. Retrieved from http://circ. ahajournals. org/content/78/6/1345. full. pdf
WEBMD. (2015). Heart Disease Health Center. Retrieved from http://www. webmd. com/heart-disease/guide/treatment-angioplasty-stents