Running head: SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR Concept Map of Pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder and Possible Medications for Treatment Name
Institutional Affiliation
Bipolar also known as manic depression is a mental disorder where the person affected experiences serious mood swings. The affected person experiences mania and depression that can either be brief or last for several days. The periods vary from person to person. When a person experiences a manic episode, he or she experiences extreme irritability, happiness, hyperactivity, rapid speech and little desire for sleep. On the other hand, a depression could see the person experience extreme sadness, lack of interest, feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. The causes of bipolar have not yet been established. There are certain forms of medication that are used to control the symptoms of bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorder concept map
What medications might be considered as treatment for this patient, and why?
It is important to note that, bipolar has different types of medications that can help control its symptoms. However, not every patient with bipolar disorder responds to medications in a similar manner. This means that doctors could prescribe different medications before coming to the ones that work best for a particular patient. The types of medications generally used in the treatment of bipolar disorder include atypical antipsychotics, mood stabilizers and antidepressants (Grunze, et. al, 2013).
Mood stabilizers are normally the first choice in the treatment of bipolar. Patients with bipolar generally use mood stabilizers for years. There are several mood stabilizers that are good for people with bipolar. First, lithium also known as Lithobid or Eskalith is an effective mood stabilizer for bipolar patients. It treats both manic and depressive episodes. However, lithium could have side effects including restlessness, bloating, dry mouth, acne and joint and muscle pain among other side effects. The doctor should first check the amount of lithium in the body before prescribing the medication. Secondly, anticonvulsants are also used as stabilizers for people with bipolar disorder. They help control moods. Examples of anticonvulsants include Valproic acid, Lamotrigine, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine and topiramate. However, anticonvulsants could have side effects including drowsiness, headache, dizziness, heartburn, constipation and mood swings (McCance & Huether, 2010).
Atypical antipsychotics are used to treat the symptoms of bipolar, however, not all the time. They are prescribed among other medications such as antidepressants and they include olanzapine, aripiprazole and quetiapine. These also have side effects that include dizziness, drowsiness, sensitivity to the sun, menstrual problems for women and rapid heartbeat and could increase the chances of diabetes. This means that the doctor should check important aspects such as glucose levels, weight and lipid levels (Yatham, et. al 2005).
Antidepressants are also used to treat depressive episodes in bipolar patients. Some of the antidepressants used include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (paxil) and bupropion (wellbutrin). However, they are prescribed with mood stabilizers because, if taken alone, they can increase the risk of mania. The side effects o antidepressants could include headache, agitation and nausea (Yatham, et. al 2005).
Aside from medication, patients with bipolar disorder need psychotherapy because it provides support, guidance and education to patients and their families on how to handle the situation. Some psychotherapy treatments for bipolar include family-focused therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, psycho-education and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (Brashers, 2006).
Brashers, V. L. (2006). Clinical applications of pathophysiology: An evidence-based approach.
New York: Mosby Elsevier
Grunze, H., Vieta, E., Goodwin, G. M., Bowden, C., Licht, R. W., Möller, H. J., & Kasper, S.
(2013). The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the biological treatment of bipolar disorders: update 2012 on the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 14(3), 154-219.
McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (Eds.). (2010). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease
in children and adults. New York: Mosby Elsevier.
Yatham, L. N., Kennedy, S. H., ODonovan, C., Parikh, S., MacQueen, G., McIntyre, R. &
Gorman, C. P. (2005). Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT)
guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: consensus and controversies. Bipolar disorders, seven (s3), 5-69.