Acrylamide in food in switzerland english language essay

WARNING: This Essay Has No Title!

Introduction

Topic

of Dissertation: Oxidized fat, Charred component, Carcinogen phenylbutazone are substances that can be found inside the burger meat which will lead to several types of cancers if consume in long-term period. Lim Hock Leong, Chong Lee Kim, Wau Hui Ying(Tunku Abdul Rahman College, 2013)

Title of Journal:

Health Implication of Acrylamide in Food in SwitzerlandReport of a joint FAO or WHO consultation, WHO, Headquarters, Geneva, SwitzerlandHealth implications of acrylamide in food: report of a joint FAO/WHO consultation, WHO, Headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 25-27 June 2002. Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds Evaluation of the EPA ReassessmentBoard on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Division on Earth and Life StudiesTHE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS, Washington, DCPolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons – Occurrence in foods, dietary exposure and health effectsEuropean Commssion, Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-GeneralScientific Committee on Food, 4 December 2002

Abstract

The topic of this group dissertation is about oxidized fat, charred component and Carcinogen Phenylbutazone that can be found inside the burger meats which can lead to different types of cancers as consumed in a long period of time. Therefore, there are 8 research questions in total are being carried out in this group dissertation. The first research is asking about do the subject like to eat burgers. The second question is asked about whether the subject likes the taste of burgers. The third question is being asked about how often the subject consumes burgers. The forth question is asking about is eating one burger can be considered as a balanced nutritional option according to the subject’s own knowledge. The fifth question is asking about the opinion of the subject is he or she thinking burger is a healthy food option if burger offers a balanced nutrition. The sixth question is being asking about would the subject still consume one after knowing burger contains grinded and mixed leftovers like animal skin, bones, organs, added plastic and the sort. The seventh question is asked about do the subject think the habit of eating burger has become a prevalent or prominent culture throughout the world’s population. The last question is asking about the opinions of subject what do them really think now after having the survey about burgers. These eight questions are then being asked to 50 persons who are in the age from 15 until 30 years old. The main purpose of this group dissertation is to investigate the consumption of burgers in long-term period will increase the risks and chances of getting prostate cancer. Other than that, the history of burger, evolution of burger, human diet on burger, commercialized of burger, preparation of burger and the significance of burger are being determined and investigated when doing this group dissertation. There are many methods being used to gather data in the process of doing this group dissertation. One of the methods of gathering data is using journal. The topic journal used is about Health Implication of Acrylamide in Food and Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment in Switzerland and United States. Health Implication of Acrylamide in Food are from report of a joint FAO or WHO consultation, WHO, Headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland and Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment is from Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Division on Earth and Life Studies. The result part of this group dissertation is about the disadvantages of consuming burgers in long-term. Journal obtain from the European Commission is also used in this project, as it discusses the effect of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplies and generally through cooking methods of the burger patty. In conclusion part, the summary of major findings or highlights of the most important findings are being done in this group dissertation. The discussion of the implications of the search and the suggestion for future research is also being done to conclude this group dissertation. Consequently, the 50 persons who are being asked about the survey questions are being put into appendices part to complete this group dissertation.

Research Question

Malaysia is famous and popular with plethora food cuisine from various cultural civilizations. For example, burger is one of the international foods that available in Malaysia. The research regarded burger is carried out among 50 people of ages between 15 to 30 years old. They are being asked and answered about 8 research questions in total which are prepared in the form of questionnaires. All the research questions from the survey forms are related to burger. The research questions are set up in order to investigate among the student on their exploration about harmful components that will form during the process of frying burger meat. In fact, it will cause serious disease like cancer if consumed fried burger meat in a long-term period.

Research Question 1:

The people are being asked about their opinions whether they like to eat burgers.

Research Question 2:

The people are being asked about whether they like the taste of burgers.

Research Question 3:

The people are being asked about how many burgers can be consumed by them in a week. There are choices from one to more than six burgers consumption in one week.

Research Question 4:

The people are being asked about is eating one burger can be considered as a balanced nutritional option according to their own knowledge.

Research Question 5:

The people are being asked about their opinions on is burger a healthy food option if it offers a balanced nutrition.

Research Question 6:

The people are being asked whether they will keep consuming burger meat after knowing it is made by grinded and mixed substances like animal skin, bones, added plastic and other harmful components.

Research Question 7:

The people are being asked is the habit of eating burger has become a prevalent and prominent culture around the world’s population.

Research Question 8:

The people are being asked about would they still consume burger after knowing the facts of processed burger meat.

Purpose

The purpose of this qualitative correlational study is: To determine the consumption of burger meat in a long-term period can lead to cancer due to the harmful substances which can be found inside the burger meat. To discover the risks and chances of causing cancer if consume burger meat in a long period of time. To explore the factors that cause consumers to eat burger and some negative effects which will bring to them after consuming burger in long-term.

Justification

Our health is the major concern for people nowadays. However, most of the people do not understand a healthy life is abundantly related to a healthy diet. The roles of diet in the pathogenesis, prevention as well as treatment of a range of diet-related chronic diseases are very important to us. Burger is one type of international foods which can be found in our local country. Burger meat is made by different types of meat such as chicken, pork, beef, mutton, turkey meat, buffalo, deer, and any other animals’ meat by placing between lettuce, tomato, bacon, onion, pickles, cheese or other ingredients sandwich with two slices of burger buns. Burger is considered as one type of fast food as it can bring health concern due to some components inside burger meat which may harm our health if consume in a long-term period. However, in Malaysia, pork is prohibited in every fast food restaurant due to the illegal of Islam. It is not healthy if consume large amount of burgers because burger is fast food that has 65% of higher density than typical diet and twice higher than healthy diet. In fact, a high density food can control brain’s appetite and this is why the main factor causing people always consume burgers as part of their meal. Therefore, phenomenon will cause obesity among these people last longer. Charred components are also believed in leading and increase the risk of causing cancer. This is because during the process of grilling burger meat, charred components will be formed until the meat is well-done. Studies have shown the oxidized fat and carcinogen phenylbutazone are two components that found in the burger meat can bring some bad effects which may lead to health problems. In the research, they believe that the oxidized fat can build up plaques in arteries and this would harm our cardiovascular system. Moreover, another component which is called carcinogen phenylbutazone may increase the chances of getting prostate cancers. Carcinogen phenylbutazone is a toxic that will harm bone marrow. It is rarely found in horse meat throughout Europe and there have several news had reported Europeans are being exposed to carcinogen phenylbutazone due to the consumption of horse meat which is used to produce burger meat. If consume it in long period of time, chances of getting cancer will be increased significantly. However, oxidized fat cannot be digested in small intestine will accumulate in the arteries and as time passes, plaque will be formed inside it. This condition may lead to serious cardiovascular diseases such as stroke and heart disease.

Literature Review

HISTORY OF BURGER

A burger, also known as hamburger, hamburger sandwich or hamburg. It is a sandwich that consist of ground meat, lettuce, tomato, bacon, onion, pickles, cheese and others that placed inside burger buns. The term of ” burger” can be used to the meat patty on its own, the term ” patty” is seldom used in the United Kingdom(UK). This term prefixed with the types of meat like in ” beef burger”.

ETYMOLOGY

The Term ” hamburger” is originated from Hamburg. Hamburg is the second largest city in Germany, from which many people emigrated to the United State(US). Burg means fortified refuge or fortified settlement in High German. Burg also is a place’s name. The term ” hamburger” can be a descriptive noun in German, defining to someone that came from Hamburg or an adjective that describe things from Hamburg. For example, London → Londoner. The term ” burger” is related with different types of sandwiches similar to hamburger, using different types of meat, such as kangaroo burger, salmon, buffalo, venison, elk, turkey, veggie or lamb burger.

HISTORY

The first person who created the burger in America which is only two slices of breads with a ground beef patty is Louis Lassen in 1900, who is the host of Louis’s Lunch in the place that called New Heaven, Connecticut. After that, Louis Lassen suffer from many matches like Frank and Charles Menches, Charlie Nagreen, Fletcher David, and Oscar Weber Biby. White Castle, which is a restaurant of fast food Hamburger traces the background of Hamburger to Hamburg, Germany and its invention by Otto Kuase.

Louis Lassen

Louis Lassen is the first person that selling steak sandwich and hamburger in his restaurant Louis’ Lunch in New Heaven, Connecticut in the year 1900. From one website stated that: ” In the year 1900 of one day, a man rushed into a restaurant and requested for a quick meal that the man could eat in his way. Louis Lassen, the owner, thus make a grill ground beef between two slices of bread and sell to the man.”

Charlie Nagreen

One of the earliest declares come from Charlie Nagreen in the year 1885, who sold the meatball at the Seymour Fair (now is called as Outgamie Country Fair) when he was 15 years old. When he was not experiencing much success on selling meatballs, he come out with an ideal and located some bread. He realized that consumers could simply having their meat with two slices of bread so that consumers could eat on their way. The burger credit by Charlie Nagreen, now is called as ” Hamburger Charlie”.

Otto Kuase

White Castle, a restaurant of fast food Hamburger, state that Otto Kuase is the person who invent the Hamburger in 1891. Otto Kuase cooked a beef patty by using butter, and placed a fried egg on the top.

Oscar Weber Bilby

Oscar Weber Bilby is the person who invent the hamburger in 1891. Granpa Oscar’s farm serve the first-known hamburger on a bun using a yeast bun was claimed by the family of Oscar Weber Bilby. In 1995, the first real hamburger on a bun was invented and consumed in Tulsa, Oklahoma in the year 1891 proclaimed by Governor Frank Keating. And Tulsa is the place that called as ” The Real Birthplace of the Hamburger”.

Frank and Charles Menches (Menches Brother)

Frank and Charles Menches are the brother who declared sold ground beef at Erie County Fair in Hamburg, New York in 1885. They replaced ground beef instead of pork sausage for making their sandwiches because pork sausage already used up during the fair. Kunzog is the person who spoke to Frank Menches, said that they used up their supply of sausage, so bought ground beef from Andrew Klein who is a butcher. However, the historian who called Joseph Streamer wrote that the meat was from Stein’s market but not Klein’s market. This story told that the invention of burger come from Hamburg, New York, not Hamburg, Germany.

Fletcher Davis

A person who declared to have invented the hamburger in the year 1880. In the history, he served a ‘ burger’ that containing ground beef patty with mustard and onion between two slices of bread with a pickle beside the ‘ burger’ at his lunch counter in Athens. After that, he bring along his wife, Ciddy to St. Louis World’s Fair to run a sandwich stand in 1904. Frank X. Tolbert, a historian, said that an Athen’s resident who named Clint Murchison said his grandfather dated with ‘ Old Dave’ (Fletcher Davis) and he had the photo of ” Old Dave’s Hamburger Stand” as a evidence of the claim. The photo sent to Tolbert. http://upload. wikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/62/NCI_Visuals_Food_Hamburger. jpg/220px-NCI_Visuals_Food_Hamburger. jpgPicture 1: HamburgerPlace of origin : GermanyCreators : a lotServing Temperature : hotMain Ingredients : breads, ground beef

EVOLUTION OF BURGER

Burger is not consider a dish in Malaysia, but is a Europe dish that had been popular in Germany and New York long time ago. The term of ‘ Hamburger’ is originated from Hamburg, which is the place located in Germany. The very first burger is served just a grill ground beef between two slices of breads. On that time, the meat of the burger usually is ground beef. However, the different story of creators comes out with different types of burger. For example: some story wrote that using yeast bun to make a burger, some is using mustard and onion between the two slices of bread. Nowadays, the burger comes out with using different types of ingredient or different types of meat. The types of ingredient such as tomato slice, salad, cheese, vegetables, and others while the types of meat such as chicken, lamb, pork, or even fish is used for making the burger. In Malaysia, pork is seldom be used because of the illegal of the Islam. The preparation methods are slightly changed as time go on. The home-made burger is thicker in meat compared with in restaurant which is uniform thickness meat. Firstly, the marinated meat is grilled on the pan and after that let it cooled. But then, when the time goes on, they start to add in some ingredient such as tomato slice, cheese, vegetable with the grill meat placed between two slices of breads. The majority of meat being used is lamb, chicken, beef, and fish. The shape of burger usually round in shape, but some are sell in square-cut burger. Today, the burger has been sell in all the place such as in restaurant, fast food restaurants, night market (Pasar Malam), mamak stalls and others. And there are various types of burger in different country, town or states. For example:

Teriyaki Onion Burgers

The types of meat used is ground beef. Other ingredients consist of teriyaki marinade sauce, French fried onions, cheddar cheese, and hamburger buns. The step of making this type of burger is simple and easy. First, marinade the meat with teriyaki marinade sauce and French fried onions and form the mixture. Then grill the mixture until cooked and topped with cheese and also the buns. Picture 2: Teriyaki Onion Burgershttp://images. media-allrecipes. com/userphotos/140×140/00/81/64/816411. jpg

Pineapple Teriyaki Burgers

Lean ground beef is used. The other ingredients include onion soup mix, teriyaki marinade (ginger), salt, pineapple, wasabi paste, mayonnaise, say sauce, onion, burger buns. To make this burger, firstly mix the ground beef, teriyaki marinade mix, soup mix and pineapple juice together. The patties are formed. Pineapple rings is then pressed into the top of the burger. Put on the burger some salt and pepper and grill pineapple both side. Serve the burger with mayonnaise, wasabi, soy sauce, onions. Picture 3: Pineapple teriyaki burgersPineapple-Teriyaki-Burgers-Food-Network. card. jpg

Tasty Turkey Burgers

The meat is used for the burger is ground turkey. Ingredients include Italian-seasoned breadcrumbs, finely chopped green bell pepper, egg, minced dried onion, salt, fresh herb marinade, freshly group pepper, burger buns, Herb-Grilled onion rings, parmesan cheese. Mix the ground turkey, breadcrumbs, egg, green bell pepper, minced dried onion salt, and freshly ground pepper to form patties. The patty is then grilled with fresh herb marinade. Serve the burger after buns are grilled and put on some Herb-Grilled Onion Rings and parmesan cheese. Picture 4: Turkey burgersTasty Turkey Burgers Recipe

Sweet Barbecue Kim-cheese Burgers

Ground chuck is used for the meat of the burgerThe other ingredients consist of thin matchstick cucumber, thin matchstick carrot, black pepper, kosher salt, rice wine vinegar, sugar, marinade, cheese slices, chopped kimchi, thin scallions, burger buns. Mix cucumber, carrot, salt, sugar, and vinegar together. Then season some salt and pepper on the patties. Grill the patty and toast the bun. Top with patty with cheese slide and also chopped kimchi, scallions and pickled carrot/ cucumber. Picture 5: Sweet barbecue kim-cheese burger20120713-burger-topping-variations-04. jpg

Dz Skillet Burger

The ingredients include lean hamburger, finely chopped onion, teriyaki marinade, honey barbecue sauce, Worcestershire sauce, ground black pepper, salt, garlic, Lawry’s Seasoned salt, pepper. Mix all ingredients into a bowl to form patties. Grill the patties and ready to serve. Picture 6: Dz skillet burgerDz Skillet Burger

Teriyaki Burgers

Ground beef is used. Ingredients: beaten egg, teriyaki marinade sauce, finely shredded carrots, French fried onion, swiss cheese, burger buns. Mix the beaten egg, teriyaki marinade sauce, finely shredded carrot, French fried onion to form patties. Grill the patties and put a swiss cheese and serve with buns. Picture 7: Teriyaki burgerTeriyaki Burgers. Photo by diner524

HUMAN DIET ON BURGER

Burger can be found everywhere especially in fast food restaurant such as McDonald. McDonald is the one of the top on selling burgers, with around 550 million sold in one year in United State. It is also a lot of restaurants are selling burger too. It has become a favourite food among us like Malays, Indians, or Chinese. There are several types of eating pattern by Malaysian: Burger in MealBurger is considered a dish in Europe, but not in Asia because Asian tend to consider a dish with presence of rice. However, some people start to consider burger as a main dish. They eat burger when breakfast, lunch, or even dinner because it is convenience to eat the burger. Method of Eating BurgerSome people eat the burger with putting some chili sauce and ketchup to make the burger more delicious. Some people just like to eat the burger with original flavor. Categories of Malaysian to Eat BurgerThere are many kids, teenagers and adults like to eat burger, but just a small amount of old people consume burger among Malaysian. Negative Effect of Eating BurgerBurger is considered one of the types of fast food. Eating fast food can cause some negative effect in long term. Fast food has 65% higher energy density than typical diet and twice higher than healthy diet. A high density food will cause brain’s control system for appetite. The people always eat at McDonald, KFC, or Burger King, it will cause obesity to your body because it contain high calories. ( Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Center and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). A fat that called oxidized fat is found in fast food such as hamburger, French fries and pizza will increase the build up of plaque in arteries. (Veterans Administration Medical Center in San Francisco). Fast food contain high in saturated fat but low in carbohydrate, which is unhealthy to our body. The grill meat that contain a black colour in the surface of the meat also can cause cancer. The horse meat slaughtered in United Kingdom has been found that a drug called carcinogen phenylbutazone contain in horse meat may enter to human food chain and cause cancer. ( Shadow environment secretary Mary Creagh). Meat patties have also been found to contain dioxin compounds stored in its fatty acids which causes skin lesions and affects the immune and reproductive systems, besides being a carcinogen. Acrylamide is also found is pan-cooked burger buns which have been shown to cause nerve damage and cause cancer. Why burger is preferred? It is because the grill meat, it taste delicious and nice because some people like to eat the grill meat with the surface of back colour. Besides, it is also cooked by different types of meat, people can choose based on their flavour.

COMMERCIALIZED OF BURGER

In 15th century, people started to eat burger. However, Germany Immigrants brought burger from their country to United State in 18th – 19th centuries. Soon, burger became famous around New York. Nowadays, burger spread from Europe to another countries and burger become a well-known food all over the world. The reason of difference of burger in different country is because of the creativity of the chef around the world. There are some factors that affect the commercial of the burger, for example:

Types of meat used

People can choose their favourite meat to enjoy with their burger. The types of meat used for the patties such as chicken, pork, beef, lamb, turkey meat, buffalo, deer, and other animals. A vegetable burger also available in the market for vegetarians. The vegetable burger also known as ‘ garden burger’ or ‘ tofu burger’.

Place

Nowadays, It can be found everywhere that selling burgers, such as at the fast food restaurants (McDonald, KFC, Burger King), night market (pasar malam), mamak stall, and other restaurants. McDonald restaurant is available in almost all over the world and the number is still increasing. It is the one of the top on selling burgers.

Delivery

Some burger companies such as McDonald provide a delivery service so that people can eat the burger without going out from the house. People also can save their time on traffic jam, find parking, or wait for the food to be cooked until well-done. Besides, the company also can earn profit.

Drive-Thru

Some companies provide a drive-thru service like McDonald, it is very convenience for people who rush to go work, study or back hometown. Some people prefer eating at their car rather than in the restaurants. It also saves their time.

Advertisement

The food always looks good, nice, delicious and perfect in the advertisement. However, when you look at the real food, it always has difference. It is because the company wants all the ingredients look more visible, and photoshop on the burger. It will attract many people go to eat the burger just because of the illustration of the burger on advertisement.

Price

The burger’s is inexpensive. Many companies are targeting middle and low class families. They aim the people that do not want to spend a lot of money on food. So that burger can fulfill the low income families.

People

Burger is a Western food cuisine. Because of the burger was being well-known in all over the world, many people start to get a job of making burger. They design and create their own burger to vary the types of burger, so the different countries have its different burger.

PREPARATION OF BURGER

The recipe below shows how to prepare a chicken burger. Chicken burger is quite easy to prepare it. It is a non vegetable burger and the recipe below shows can be prepared for 8 serving. Ingredients1 sliced onion1 chopped onion1 chopped red bell pepper2 teaspoon minced garlic1 cup Fresh Sliced Mushrooms1 seeded and chopped tomato2 chopped carrots1 egg2 pounds ground chicken1 tablespoon Old Bay Seasoning½ cup Fresh Bread CrumbsBlack pepperSaltBurger bunsMethodPreheat the grate at medium heat with putting some oil. Put some oil in the pan and in a medium heat. Add garlic, onion, and sauté into the pan until it turns golden yellow. Add carrots, tomatoes, black pepper, and mushroom. Set it aside and let it cool completely. Combine ground chicken, vegetables, breadcrumb, egg, and seasoning into a large bowl. The mixture is then form patties. Grill the patties on the grate for about 5-6 minutes per side. Grill both side uniformly. Roast the burger buns for their inner side. The patty is then put on the bun base. Top with onion slices and serve on the plate. Step 4: Combine ground chicken, vegetables, breadcrumb, egg, and seasoning into a large bowl. The mixture is then form patties. Picture 8: Mixing the pattieshttp://www. naturalbiotechnology. eu/images/pictures/images/meat-burger-preparation. jpgPicture 9: Patties on grill! Step 5: Grill the patties on the grate for about 5-6 minutes per side. Grill both side uniformly. http://roadtripflavors. com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Burgers-Grilling. jpg

SIGNIFICANCE OF BURGER

In 15th century, people started to eat burger. However, Germany Immigrants brought burger from their country to United State in 18th – 19th centuries. Soon, burger became famous around New York. Burger can be found everywhere especially in fast food restaurant such as McDonald. McDonald is the one of the top on selling burgers, with around 550 million sold in one year in United State. It is also a lot of restaurants are selling burger too. It becomes a favourite food among us like Malays, Indians, or Chinese. However, it is not healthy when we consume in a large amount. It will cause some negative effect in long term. Fast food has 65% higher energy density than typical diet and twice higher than healthy diet. A high density food will cause brain’s control system for appetite. The people always eat at McDonald, KFC, or Burger King, it will cause obesity to your body because it contain high calories. ( Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Center and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). A fat that called oxidized fat is found in fast food such as hamburger, French fries and pizza will increase the build up of plaque in arteries. (Veterans Administration Medical Center in San Francisco). Fast food contain high in saturated fat but low in carbohydrate, which is unhealthy to our body. The grill meat that contain a black colour in the surface of the meat also can cause cancer. The horse meat in UK also found that the presence of carcinogen phenylbutazone which cause the cancer.