Becoming an adult involves much more than becoming physically mature, though that is an important part of the process. The transition from childhood to adulthood also involves changes in patterns of reasoning and moral thinking, and adjustments in personality and sexual behavior. Though the process is complex, most adolescents cope reasonably well with their changing circumstances. (Kassachau, 1995) Majority of the students fail to excel in their chosen career and academic performance as will others doesn’t really seem to care about the outcome of their decision/deed while other strive really hard/harder to excel. For example, after failing a test, an individual may rationalize that it happened because he didn’t review his notes; he was not even prepared for the test. So the next thing he will do is to develop good study habits. He will do all his best and motivate himself to pass the upcoming tests for him to reach his goal sign of readiness and maturity knowing that the individual thinks about his future.
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One of the differences between students who do well on the tests or exams and those who do poorly is in the type and amount of studying they do. Students who have developed good study habits often earn high grades and derive a general sense of accomplishment from their efforts. Knowing that they are adequately prepared for a test also reduces their anxiety.
Like other skills, studying skills are acquired though practice and instruction. Furthermore, people’s performance on a test will most likely improve if they space their study time even several intervals rather than cram all the studying into one session. When cramming is used as a substitute for planned study, test performance is not as good. Therefore, this study intends to discover and explore insights on the different academic transformation of the college students especially in changes in the study 1 Habits by managing time and perform better to achieve excellence in academic performance. This research hopes to undertake the invitation for a more scientific inquiry of a study of college students and children in the local context Theoretical Framework Gordon Allport (Psychology of individual) Gordon W. Allport was an influential psychologist in his day. Many of his ideas of personalities are similar to those of humanistic psychologist. For example, Allport emphasizes the positive, rational and conscious reasons why we act the way we do.
But he is most famous for his pioneering work on traits (allport, 1961) A trait, Allport said makes a wide variety of situations functionally equivalent that is it enables a person to realize that many different situations calls for a similar response. Thus, traits are responsible for the relative consistency of every individual’s behavior. His theory is called psychology of individual because it emphasizes a person’s uniqueness. Allport was certain that motivation is always a contemporary process. An individual’s current self-image is for more important than whatever he or she has been in the past (except in pathological cares).
Traits have the capacity to motivate, inhibit or select appropriate human behavior. According to Maslow, our notices are organized in hierarchy arranged from the most basic to the personal and advanced. If the lower needs in the hierarchy are not net for the most part, then higher needs will not operate. When the needs are met, other motives like developing, relationship with others, achieving positive self-esteem, producing crafts or arts or realizing on one’s full potential become important to the individual.
In line with this theory, motivation is responsible for many changes in perceptual and behavioral capabilities. Learning allows changes in the ways ends are satisfied. That is learning which can be product of a worth is responsible for the development and recognition. Cognitive Motivational Theory- John W. Atkinsons (1964) an interest in resourcefulness and goal settings controls behavior accordingly. According to his theory, there are some persons who are highly motivated by hope of success and others by fear of failure. Depending on the task, a person may have motivation and arousal can be expressed as motivational disposition, incentive or expectation. There is the awareness of what is going on, his deliberate tendency to anticipate the failures, to plan to and to take the risks.
Local Literature According to lobaton (2003), trait plays a definite rose in coquitive learning. The trait of the student towards a subject or skill may be the primary and most significant determinant of how much one will remember and use such skill. In addition, calderon (1998) stated that age is a big factor in making one period different from another.
A 6 year old boy cannot do to understand what a 12 years old boy can. Generally, older learners have more physical strength and higher level of comprehension that younger ones. Maturation and readiness are important are learning nature learners having greater capacity to receive instruction. On the other hand, gulmatico(2003) explained that traits are the most conspicuous aspects of the entire social life. It is a complicated mixture of same basic psychological person the negative and positive incentives that might motivate individual behavior towards are avcial to attitude.
Individuals integrate various beliefs to arrive at an evaluation of an object, which is to determine how important it is to them. According to gaerlan(2000), the activating or energizing aspect producer a state of readiness for behavior. The direction is toward the achievement of same goes, reward or incentive. The goal is an end status at which sustained activity eared. Once the goal is reached, the behavior is changes. Goals may be either positive or negative. Those goals that the individual approaches or attempts to get are positive. Negative goals are those which the person tiers to escape from or avoid, such as dangerous on unpleasant situation.
Limpingas(2007), added that man as a does may have some sort of achievement motive. Achievement motivation refers to the tendency to define once goal aced to same standard of excellence in the product of performance attained. The motive is to accomplish something and to succeed at what one undertaken. Success is highly proved. Students would like to achieve good grades in school and to make good at their profession. Roldan (2003), explained that if positive consequence result from our action than we are likely on the right track and we can use our experience to our best advantage.
Foreign Literature According to Ausubel(2000), Adolescence in our alternative can be described as a time of transition in the bio-social status of the individual. It is a period during which marked changes occur in duties, responsibilities, privileges and relationship with others. Under such condition, changes attitudes self, parents, peers and other become inevitable.
In the article “ effective instruction and productive learning” the author Trafton(2000) explained that stay habits are generally accepted as a positive means of improving learning. However, good studies habits may be accompanied though correct practice that will enhance and encourage such habits. Among such practices, the author and personalized system of instructions and to a certain extent the practiced of conducting an experiment related to class lesson The quality of education could also be known through their academic performance which is a function of the output of study habits of the student. Thus, to enhance the morality of education, it is necessary to improve the study habits of the students. To improve, study habits, factors which affect their characteristic need to be identified.
When there factors are identified, it would then be possible to formulate remedial measures. To identify the factors having negative effect on study habits and development of good study habits, a well-organized plan is needed (King 2004) The feed for achievement is a stable, learned characteristic in which satisfaction is obtained by striving for and obtaining a level f excellence. People with a high need for achievement seeks at situations in which they compete against some standard- be it grades, money or winning a game – push themselves successful (Spence 2001).
According to Maquiod(2004) on his part discusses that self-worth and academic achievement go hand in hand. If the individual does not have a positive self-esteem, the individual is likely developing academic problems. Students who view themselves positively and have confidence in their ability usually work hard on classroom tasks and try to reach their goals. According to Howley and Pedarius(1990) under achievement is the result of a student behavior, personality and family concerns coupled with emotional factors and poor relationships with parents and peers. 8 Local StudiesAccording to Espinosa (1999) mentioned that understanding the factor that influence achievement motivation is important because motivation effort competence. Environments predict economic learning twice as well socio-economic status to succeed instead when environment home. According to Martinez (1997) as cited by Ceballo(2006) in her study purpose a new model for intentional learning.
She cited that intentional learners, passion, self- concepts and principal principle to direct intentional learning in the achievement of changing goes using dynamic thoughtful approach to reach management problem solving and assessment. Intentional learner and specific strategies to make the changes they face and learning situation and intentional condition such as understanding of innate capacities understanding factor, meaningful and relevant experiences and the like motivate a person to learn more. Providing a quality education for all students in inclusive settings has been identified as perhaps the most challenging, yet most important, current issue in education. The greatest impact on diversity is the movement towards the inclusion of students with disabilities in the mainstream.
During the last decade, inclusive education in Malta has been going through several developments and more and more teachers are being called upon to teach students with a wide range of abilities and needs. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential stressors for secondary school teachers during inclusion and how they best cope with them (Azzopardi Diane 2005). Motivations are the fundamental reasons for a particular traveling behavior and play a vital role in understanding the decision making process of tourists, as well as assessing the subsequent satisfaction of tourist’s expectation (Snepenger, King, Marshall, and Uysal, 2006). According to David McClelland (1965) these theories stated above, people can be stimulated to do something in general or to choose a destination in particular by their differences of needs. People travel for all of the factors mentioned above just to satisfy their different needs, which in turn influences their choices of destination.
Hence, motivations are the factors that affect people’s choices of destinations in different ways. According to Romando (2008), motivation is the basic and important to push or stimulate human into actions with their attempt in order to obtain what they want. His theory claims that there are three specific aspects of motivation, which are the arousal of behavior, the direction of behavior, and persistence of behavior. He explained that “ arousal of behavior involves what activates human behavior and direction of behavior is concerned with what directs behavior towards a specific goal. Persistence of behavior is concerned with how the behavior is sustained” (Romando, 2008). 9 There are a great number of definitions of motivation. In general, the term motivation is simply the processes that answer the question about why and how people’s behavior is activated and directed.
Therefore, motivation is considered as the internal factors that raise and control human behavior. Motivation is described as a driving force that makes us move (Solomon, 2004: 114). Foreign studiesAccording to Anderson(1990) as cited by Beunabe(2002) in their study on motivation in academic achievements founds that motivation is significant related which such characteristic of student behavior as interest, alertness, attention and concentration they summed up their discussion by hypothesizing that anxiety under all human motivation. There are a number of factors that affect performance in school, one of the most Influential is motivation. Motivation, also referred to as academic engagement, refers to “ Cognitive, emotional, and behavioral indicators of student investment in and attachment to education” (Tucker, Zayco, & Herman, 2002).
One widely accepted theory is Goal Theory. It postulates that there are two main types of Motivation for achieving in school. Students with an ability or performance goal orientation are concerned with proving their competence by getting good grades or performing well compared to other students. On the other hand, students with a task goal orientation are motivated by a desire to increase their knowledge on a subject or by enjoyment from learning the material.
(Anderman & Midgley, 1997; Maehr & Midgley, 1991) According to Dowson and McInerney (2001) found that many studies utilize an a priori approach to identify student goals. They argue that this method is ineffective since it limits the range and descriptions of goals. They instead inductively generated a list of goals by interviewing and observing middle school children and then categorizing these results. They found that students showed characteristics of four different goal orientations: work avoidance, social affiliation, social responsibility and social concern. According to Alschuler (1990) individual with high achievement motivation where interested in excellence for its own safe rather than for the reward it buys. They evaluated holes on the basic of the opportunities for excellence rather than prestige. 10 In addition, research has also suggested that task and performance goals are not mutually exclusive. While many experimental studies forced research participants to select one goal orientation or the other, correlation research has found that individuals’ endorsement of a task goal orientation is often weakly correlated or uncorrelated with endorsement of a performance goal orientation (Kaplan & Maehr, 2002).
Students also have social goals that influence their motivation alongside academic goals. Describe four types of social goals: social approval, social compliance, social solidarity, and social concern. Research involving qualitative methods has suggested that social goal orientations are associated with academic achievement (Urdan and Maehr, 1995)BibliographyLimpingco, D. A and Tria, G. E. 2007. Personality Thrid edition. Quezon City: Ken Inc Roldan, Amelia S.
2003. Becoming a winner: a Work book on Personality Development and Character Building Gangcuangco, Louie Mar A. 2008. Gee, My Grades are Terrific: Students Guide to Academic Excellence Kasschau, Richard A.
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